Solid waste collection in periurban areas is often more complex compared to urban areas. Besides its own waste the periurban area is burdened by urban waste as it is often used as disposal place. Is there any waste management in planned settlements and unplanned ones? And if it exists, is there any coordination between them and who organised it?
Phnom Penh is rapidly growing from day to day. In order to find economic opportunities to survive and live, thousands of migrants moved from rural areas to the urban center and dominate the steadily increasing informal settlement of the city. They need public support, often they live under fully inappropriate conditions.
According to the policy for urban management, the Municipality of Phnom Penh (MP) tries to facilitate and solve the problems intending to create a better environment of living for all stakeholders in the city.
The Indonesian Technological Institute (ITI) in Jakarta is a private university established in 1984. It is located in periphery (periurban) Tangerang (about 40 km, south-west of Jakarta). Consisting of 3 faculties and 10 departments. The jurusan PWK (Department of Urban and Regional Planning) is under the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning.
The earthquake in 5,9 Richter-Scale occurred on 27th May 2006 at 5.30 am, has destroyed areas in Special Region of Yogyakarta Province especially in Bantul and Central Java Province especially in Kabupaten Klaten. Following smaller earthquakes caused a trauma for the people. However, the farmers can survive and do their activities to make their living. There are some factors that affect farmers survival :
The earthquake occurred in Yogyakarta Special Region (YSR) on May 27, 2006 has a catastrophic impact. More than 5.000 people were killed and not less than 205.000 houses were collapsed. The main reason of the tremendous impacts was that the people have no alertness to disaster. In the future a reliable disaster respond system should be set up and the people should always be reminded that an earthquake may occur unpredictably so they have to be familiarized to disaster.
Collaboration and partnership between Gadjah Mada University and Universities in Germany formally and informally have been done since years ago. Some of them are Karlsruhe University, Stuttgart University, Oldenburg University, Giessen University, Berlin University and many others. Besides, Gadjah Mada Universities has maintained relations with various other German organisations.
PUDSEA – Peri-Urban Development in South-East Asia was established in 2001 as an information network between Asian and European Universities, funded by the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD). The basic idea was to foster contacts between Universities and their Alumni beyond their stay in Germany as well as to facilitate networking between Alumni themselves.
In the meantime, PUDSEA has grown up to a multi-stakeholder collaboration, also including non-Alumni, by successively integrating local stakeholders.
On May, 27 2006, an earthquake occurred in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Earthquake disaster is a quick type natural disaster with occur suddenly and litte warning or without warning. The earthquake disaster in Yogyakarta, on May, 27 2006, cause severe property damage and large number of deaths people. Yogyakarta local goverment is not experienced enough devastating earthquake disaster, even the local goverment close and has an experienced devastating volcanic dissaters.
The Merapi Volcano is located in the norther part of Yogyakarta. The Yogyakarta Province is located in Java Island has short-listed by Government of Republic Indonesia as one of the most volcanic disaster. Because the local goverment has not an experienced to face the disaster, there is no preparation to face the earthquake disaster. When the dissater occurred, local goverment lack of spatial information related to the building damage and its residents. Spatial information related to the disaster location are needed for emergency response and recovery/ rehabilitation after the disaster. One of the spatial data are needed for the activities of emergecy response and recovery are a map of building damage. The objective of the research is to make a quick assessment and mapping of the damage inflicted by this earthquake and to develop database to make recommendations in recovery phases.
This article discusses the impacts of urban development in terms of physical development on the commitments of farmers on their agricultural lands and activities. These two aspects are worth discussing because they are related to the future of farming activities and farmers in the urban peripheries. The loss of agricultural land as a matter of fact, has significant impacts on the behaviour of farmers.
In rural areas, the commitments of farmers on their agricultural lands and activities are extremely high, due to the facts that their life is solely dependent on farming activities. In the areas close located to urban area, the commitments seems to change parallel with the loss of agricultural land. They have to reformulate their living strategy in accordance with the working process of environmental change. High commitments on agricultural land and activities are associated with the specific doctrine of Javanese culture and custom (the idea of family, the consideration of social status), whereas the reasons for not retaining their agricultural lands and activities (low commitment on agricultural lands and activities) are related to the specific nature of urban fringe areas. The disturbance in agricultural activities, the high land market , low yield in agriculture are the determinant factors.
Cambodia is located in South-East Asia north of the Equator and next to Vietnam, Thailand, Laos and the Gulf of Siam. The history of land management and administration in Cambodia goes back to the Civil Code of 1920, which established the system of French land law that recognized private property rights.
During the 1960s there was an adequate system of land management, including confirmation of private property rights with land records including cadastral map and land titles.
Land Management is defined as a system of planning and management methods and techniques that aims to integrate ecological with social, economic and legal principles in the management of land for urban and rural development purposes to meet changing human needs, while simultaneously ensuing the long-term productive potential of natural resources and the maintenance of their environmental and cultural functions.
To initiate a long term capacity building process, the Ministry of Land Management, Urban Planning and Construction together with the Royal University of Agriculture decided to set up a Bachelor program and a short-term education to obtain a Diploma. In Cambodia, no such education was ever offered until the formation of the Faculty of Land Management and Land Administration at the Royal University of Agriculture and consequently there was a deficiency in human resources to develop the new curriculum and to establish the Faculty. The initiative is financially supported by a loan from the World Bank and technical assistance from the Government of Germany. Since 2003 the Royal University of Agriculture has been implementing the program in close collaboration with the Land Management and Administration Project Component 2 for institutional development. Continuously it will provide support to set up and organize an education program on land management and administration inside a long-established Cambodian university.
Secure access to land is a crucial factor to economic development and social prosperity. For the last few years, in the Kingdom of Cambodia, land conflict has been among the key causes of people’s livelihood and poverty. In fact, it is one of the major social issues in the country. Some cases even became violent conflicts (criminal cases) such as the Poi Pet land conflict in March 2005. The Cambodian land situation becomes serious in comparison with its neighbouring countries like Thailand and Vietnam.
Cambodia, in 1989, reintroduced property and ownership rights. However, no proper system and guidelines were developed to support the land market and establish a basis for land valuation and taxation, and this resulted in loss of revenue for the government. Due to the difficult political history and civil strife, the land market remained inefficient and inequitable. This impacts on the socio-economic progress of the Kingdom.
Historically, in Cambodia planning was – and often still is – carried out by technical staff at the national level through the preparation of Master Plans that were subsequently handed down to the local level for further implementation. As we know, top-down and technically oriented planning approaches by themselves are unable to respond adequately to rapid changes and local issues that occur in rapidly developing urban centres.
Khon Kaen city, one of the fast growing cities in Thailand, is located in the central northeast which is the poorest region of the country. According to the first phase of the National Economic and Social Development Plan in 1962, Khon Kaen was set as the developing centre in the north-eastern region of the country. Regional government sectors and Khon Kaen University were established. This caused the immigration of people to live within the city, so it has experienced a profoundly rapid growth of the urban area during the last few decades.
In some Asian cities, urbanization is growing rapidly since the last three decades. Rapid economic growth led by modernization and industrialization in urban areas, attracts rural population to migrate to the urban centres. Only few Asian cities have been well planned and managed in response to rapid and massive urbanization. Urbanization may create a complexity of interactions among citizen, which stimulate development in more plurality or diversity. This paper explains the trends in urbanization and urban settlement dualism taking a case study in Yogyakarta. This city has three major attributes, i.e. centre of Javanese culture, student centres and major tourism destinations.
As a response of Earthquake Disaster, the senior Vice Rector of Academic Affaires made a special Memo of Regulation reffering to Students Community Service Works or ”Kuliah Kerja Nyata (KKN) for the earthquake situation of 29 May 2006. Based on this Memo, the Institute of Research and Community Services (LPPM) elaborated the technical regulation of implementation of The Community Empowerment Learning and recruited and employed students for the program.
Cambodia experienced many political regimes. In 1989, the Government of Cambodia changed policy from planned economy to free market by providing ownership rights on land which has been reintroduced. After the election in Cambodia in 1993, demand on land for local needs and investments increase noticeably. Land is a commodity to invest in Cambodia and there is no restriction on this field. The Government opens “sky policy” for investment by providing thousand hectares of land for concessions to local and foreign investors. At the same time this access is prone to cause land speculations even Cambodia has the law on unused land since 1996.
The city of Jogjakarta attracts many tourists for its (historic) sights as well as an educational city. One of the most famous tourism areas in Jogjakarta is Malioboro area. The Malioboro area is a street complex that is located in the center of Jogjakarta City, in the middle of Jogjakarta Special Province. In former times, the atmosphere in the Malioboro road was very nice, a lot of traditional art performances occurred there.
Many local artists also performed their creativity and traditional street vendors and restaurants with traditional service style were located there. Malioboro road was a unique area that attracts many local and foreign tourists to enjoy the atmosphere – the traditional culture, and fascinating street live. The modern way of life changed the traditional atmosphere and a lot of new infrastructure and activities e.g. modern malls, western style restaurants, modern street vendors with modern merchandises, are located in the Malioboro today and the area is very busy and crowded.
The City Government of Jogyakarta is concerned that the Malioboro complex will not attract tourists anymore. Since the process of changing is not reversible the Government of Jogjakarta tries to develop alternative tourism areas where the old style and traditional atmosphere is still alive and can be further supported and developed.
There are at least two reasons why it is important to develop cooperation among scholars in developing and developed countries, especially in the area of urbanization and migration. First, urbanization and migration in developing countries now becomes a hot topic since they may create serious problems for developing countries.
Indonesia is one of the developing countries, which has experienced a tremendous urban growth. The percentage of population residing in the urban areas, for example, has increased dramatically in the last three decades, from 17 percent in 1971 to 41 percent in 2000. Most urban growth was in cities of more than 1 million in size. Jakarta’s population – 11.5 million in 1990 – was projected to rise to 16.9 million by 2000, which would make it the eleventh largest city in the world. This in turn will make the urban problems even worse.
Urbanization as one model of migration has a clear economic dimension to it, in which migrants often are economic performers. By stimulating the local economy they are able to generate and increase their income. But on the other side some social problems will appear when local economic performers are challenged by migrant economic performers.
Yogyakarta is one of big cities in Indonesia with a population of 510,914 or approximately 15,720 inhabitants per square kilometer (2002). The rate of population growth from 1985 to 2002 was 6.38 % a year. Yogyakarta has the specific phenomenon as an education city, where 86 universities are located (in 2000). The university students highly contribute to the urbanization, more than 30 % of the students come from areas across the Indonesian archipelago with a growth rate of 14.76 % a year.
Along with the rapid growth of mega cities in Asia, a continuous built-up of urban areas is visible in Indonesia. Urbanisation in Indonesia has been significantly increasing between 1920 and 1990, as census data shows. It is estimated that by 2020 just about half (55.3 %) of the Indonesian population will be living in urban areas (Sukamdi, 1996). The major factors of urbanisation in the region were regional reclassification, natural increase and rural-urban migration.
The migration of population is basically a movement of population from one region to other regions in order to stay there permanently. The analysis of migration flows or patterns (either in-migration or out-migration) is of course, interesting to be understood. Understanding the pattern of migration, about origin and destination regions gives information about who the migrants are, what their reasons for migrating are and the favorite regions as main places of destination.
Three communities in Cagayan de Oro embarked on the GIS-based Urban Environmental Resources Management and Food Security Project to pilot a scheme that would address two problems confronting the people in peri-urban and urban areas of the city: garbage and food insecurity. As pilot communities, the residents in these communities ventured to show that the two issues could be answered with the interplay of integrated solid waste management, urban agriculture and environmental planning.
This case study on the Philippine urban sector, together with country case studies for India and China, serves as basis for the Special Evaluation Study on ADB’s (1999) Urban Sector Strategy (USS) and Operations. The Philippine case study examines the relevance, appropriateness and effectiveness of ADB’s Urban Strategy implementation in the country in light of rapidly increasing urbanization.
This study analyzed findings from reviews of Project Completion Reports and Project Performance Reports of Philippine urban projects, interviews of ADB staff and Philippine urban sector experts, selected visits of ongoing and completed projects, a Roundtable Discussion on Urban Development in the Philippines, and standardized questionnaire survey for executing/implementing agencies of ADB-supported projects on needs, constraints, opportunities and potential solutions to problems in the Philippine urban sector.
Urban development in the Philippines is guided by an extensive policy and legislative framework but the corresponding institutional framework is fragmented. The institutional environment for the urban sector is highly complex. Urban development is not widely recognized as a major priority of the government. Capacity at the national and local levels in various aspects of urban development is largely inadequate.
The home garden model is based on the assumption that home gardening is a process that forms part of the household livelihood strategy. Household livelihood security is defined as adequate and sustainable access to income and resources to meet basic needs (including adequate access to food, potable water, health facilities, educational opportunities, housing, time for community participation and social integration).
For the first time in the history of humankind, more than half of the world’s population will live in cities in the year 2007. Worldwide, the proportion of the population as a whole living in cities rose from 29.8% (1950) to 37.9% (1975) to 47.2% (2000), and it will probably increase to 57.2% in 2010 or 60.2% in 2030. In the industrialised countries 73% of the population was living in cities by 1990 (ca. 877 M), while in developing countries the corresponding figure was only 37%, although in absolute figures it was 1,357 M. It is assumed that the rate of urbanisation in industrialised countries will only increase slightly to 78%, i.e. 1,087 M people, while in developing countries the increase will be enormous, although it may vary from state to state. With an estimated 57% of the total population, probably more than 3,845 M people will live in cities here in 2025.
Against this background the presentation aims at a) giving an overview over the main processes of urbanisation worldwide, b) elaborating on key issues of urbanisation processes within the cities of developing countries and c) connecting these processes with major dimensions of globalisation and global change.
The process of economic reforms in Vietnam has led to both fast economic growth and rapid pace of urbanization. In Vietnam, urban areas are serving as the country’s engines of growth, accounting for about two thirds of the country’s GDP and revenue. The living standards in urban areas have risen and urban poverty has been reduced. In addition the urban built-environment has changed with the pace of new construction activities exceeding all previous records. The low skyline of the major cities is now dotted with high-rise buildings. Roads, transportation, communication, houses, supermarkets, hotels, and restaurants are being built and modernized.
The Hanoi Ancient Quarter (AQ) dates back to the founding days of the City and is therefore of great historical value. The attractive appearance of the AQ has been threatened by the development and urbanization process. From 1954 to nowadays, there have been many influxes of immigrated and migrated people. The structure of social and business relations changed. During the phase of state economic planning and administration no attention was paid to preservation.
Doi moi or transition from a central planning towards a market economy has lasted for about 20 years. Its achievements are outstanding in terms of social-economic development. Galloping inflation of a thousand percent per year was stopped. Instead, the GDP has been growing with rapid rates at an average of about 7% annually. Living standards of the population have been improved dramatically. Population living in rural areas has declined relatively.
Since Vietnam introduced its economic reform process in the late 1980s, known as Doi Moi, the country’s economic progress has been dramatic. This goes hand in hand with a rapid urbanization which is recognized as the driving force behind the economic growth.
On October 3rd 1990, the five federal states of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) joined the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) according to the unification treaty (Einigungsvertrag).
When – after a peaceful revolution in the former GDR – the German wall came down in November 1989 – two German states existed next to each other:
the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) led by a so-called social market economy
the German Democratic Republic (GDR) with a socialist planned economy.
Rivers provide important ecological functions that are increasingly under pressure from urban expansions. In the Province of Yogyakarta, Indonesia, the rivers flow through rural, suburban, and urban area. Mostly the environment near the rivers in the urban area degraded to an encroachment and loss of the valuable resources due to the high urbanized and increase population in the riverbanks. To study impact of the urban pressure on the riverbanks, 3 main rivers in the Province of Yogyakarta are analysed for spatial land use, policy, environment, social, and regional planning. The goals for this study were: a) management through regional planning for the riverside banks in sustainable development, b) policy and organization coordination among the stakeholders, c) community based respond to the riverside banks on the use and legal aspects. The results show: 1) most of the riverside banks that flows through the urban area are overpopulated and constrains social economical problems; 2) most of the stakeholders especially among the governments or mismanage with less coordination with others; and 3) the community response lead for the government to better good governance and socialize the legal aspect in integrated management with the local wisdom. The recommendation should encourage the community and other stakeholders with coordination, cooperation, and consultation for sustainable and integrated model development of the riverside banks in the Province of Yogyakarta.
Urban areas development in Indonesia has a significant impact on both the satellite towns and the urban fringe areas. Currently, the total number of urban population tends to increase. Based on World Bank’s prediction, urban population in Indonesia that previously lower than those in rural areas, will significantly increase to 132.465.25, while rural area population will increase to only 121.202.37. Natural population growth, and particularly urbanization, will significantly incur additional burdens on urban areas, especially those concerning land provisions.
This paper concerns urban structure, and the design of the physical layout of cities based upon the structure of transport networks. The evolution of transport and urban form is examined, and the case is made for the significance of urban structure which is strongly related to the access structure of a settlement. This study utilizes a combination of multidisciplinary approaches to the study of the physical development of an urban form in order to explores how traditional structures evolved, and how the probabilistic evolution of abstract structure shapes the cities we see on the ground.. For the purposes of this study, economic indicators, demographic analysis, government correspondences, individual accounts such as traveler’s writings, photographic, and cartographic representations, as well as modern scholastic interpretation serves as the matrix from which all inferences concerning the development of Yogyakarta City from 1970 to 2006 are drawn.
This study explores how transport provision can be used towards the design of urban structure and hence the physical layout and design of urban areas. Historical and contemporary relationships between transport and urban structure are reviewed. Accordingly the thesis examines the issues of hierarchy and structure, drawing distinctions between composition (absolute layout), configuration (topology) and constitution (hierarchical relationships between route types). From consideration of elemental properties of urban structure, some explicit typologies of network type and route type are developed.
This research project aims at developing public participation strategies for the community to manage the local heritage in the community with the objective to promote tourism. The research has a unique conceptual idea which contains integrated knowledge of architecture, public participation and tourism. The concept is called “Public participatory process in local heritage management for Tourism“.
The pilot study starts at Wat Klang Muang Kao community at Khon Kaen municipality since this community has a very unique characteristic. The area is the first community located at Khon Kaen in 2325 BC. As a local heritage the first city column is located in the center of Wat Klang Muang Kao. Therefore and since the location has direct access to Kaen na korn pond and Khon Kaen city the area has an expandable tourist potential.
The objective of this overview was to discuss the impact of the “Agropolitan Program”, especially in reducing the urbanization processes of Yogyakarta city. Agropolitan – an Indonesian Government Program (Agro = agriculture : Politan = city) – is an agricultural city that is supposed to be able to foster agribusiness, so that it can serve, push, and pull agriculture development in its surrounding areas. Thus, agropolitan areas consist of an agricultural city and its surrounding villages as centers of agricultural production. The boundary is not based on government administration, rather, it is based on an economic scale of any agricultural commodity. In other words, agropolitan areas are agribusiness areas that are equipped with city-like facilities. If this concept works, it will be able to reduce urbanization processes of Yogyakarta city. However, the prospect of agropolitan areas in reducing the urbanization processes of Yogyakarta city is still long way to go as a lot of weaknesses in the implementation processes must still be resolved. Banjararum village, Kalibawang sub district of Kulonprogo district would be the case areas. This paper also takes cocoa agribusiness as a study case. Preliminary studies indicated that the factor that needs to be addressed more seriously is stakeholder participation, especially farmers participation during the program planning through implementation and evaluation of the agropolitan development.
Tourism development in urban area has proved in generating income and employment, can be an important technique for helping support urban facilities and services. In other hand, planning for tourism development in towns and cities typically presents special problems, such as competing demands for development of certain prime sites for hotels, offices, retail or residential uses, traffic congestion in central areas, which may be exacerbated by tourism development, and over-use of primary tourist attractions and perhaps their degradation by intensive use. Tourism Development in Yogyakarta City has changed the face of the city, for example in Malioboro, Kampong Sosrowijayan, and Kampong Prawirotaman. Malioboro was an administration center of this city, and then followed by trading centre then now is known as tourism area. Because of its location, which is near by Malioboro, Sosrowijayan has followed it up by providing tourist accommodation; automatically this area has developed as tourism area. Kampong Prawirotaman, in the last ten, years has served the tourism accommodation supplies. About 78 % of its buildings, mostly clustered along the street, have double function, as homes and commercial function, such as restaurants, moneychanger, handy craft shops, etc. Economic motivation in term of tourism development changes the utilization patterns. Tourism as urban driving force in Yogyakarta City is very important sector. To prevent from environmental and social degradation, caused by tourism activities, sustainable tourism is the answer.
Urbanisation is recognised as an inevitable process. No democratic nation-state has ever succeeded in preventing or reversing the movement of its citizens from rural to urban areas. Even authoritarian states such as South Africa under the apartheid regime, failed to stop such migration. A democratic nation-state that upholds basic civil liberties must support decisions by its citizens to move freely.
The use of GIS and AHP for urban agriculture (UA) planning presents a compelling decision scenario to local government officials. The research was carried out on Districts 6 and 7 of Barangay Macasandig area. The area has 10.50 percent or 14.09 hectares of open spaces possible for allotment gardening purposes. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has been used on several parameters. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) model was applied to identify the priority of these parameters. Digital maps, household survey, community maps and GPS ground truth data were used. Results showed that technical and community perspectives may vary in weighing decision elements. For both perspectives however, it revealed that water resource is the most important parameter in the selection of suitable areas. Finally, this study was able to identify thirteen (13) potential allotment garden sites with respect to suitability, location of potential communities and preference for allotment garden sites.
E-Learning is a keyword in the global discussion about live long learning and “education for all” is one of the millennium goals of the international development. Referring to our workshop in Yogyakarta, ForUm is a network for urban future that “intends on cooperation aims at contributing to the global discussion concerning complex and manifold urban and peri-urban development, key challenges, conflict structures and potential solutions in general as well as within Southeast Asia” ( ForUm Newsletter 5, 2006). Thereby the share and exchange of knowledge and the co-operations in lecturing and learning are important issues of our network. E-Learning as a kind of “distance learning” can be used to bridge the spatial gap between international partner institutions as well as an instrument to share and to provide the multidisciplinary knowledge potential and the various expertise of our network members in a sustainable way. In our last network conference in September 2006 in Yogyakarta/ Indonesia more than 70 percent of our network members mentioned their interest in to this kind of learning and the first steps of realisation and implementation will take place in the upcoming Summer Schools in 2007. By a selection of corresponding internet sites this reader will give an overview of statements, potential donors, concepts and approaches in the context of cooperation in and for education, respectively e-learning, in order to provide background information material for the upcoming discussion and project design.
Secure access to land, water and related productive assets is basic to lasting solutions to hunger and poverty. It is has been widely recognized that most of Cambodians (around 85%) live in rural areas and depend on Cambodia’s land and natural resources for their livelihoods and subsistence. During the last five years a growing number of land conflicts in urban areas have taken place with sometimes severe effects on local dwellers, like forced evictions and destruction of informal housing. By one calculation, about 4% of the Cambodian population have been or involved in land disputes; this means that one in every twenty five households in Cambodia has been or is affected by land disputes.
Currently in the Kingdom of Cambodia, all land disputes are divided between the court and the Cadastral Commission. Disputes over registered land, means a land with any types of titles issued by cadastral administration and all contractual disputes over unregistered land such as succession dispute, sale/purchase contract, lease agreement and mortgages shall be subject to the competence of the court. Most lawyers remarked that decisions were linked to corruption in court proceedings, and led to violent evictions started through court decisions.
Two different paradigms/approaches in working with peoples and communities are discussed in this paper, namely: the “ABCD” (Asset-based Community Development) and the “DCBA” (Deficiency-of-Community-based Approach).
Urbanization is unstoppable. Alongside with this development trend comes the challenge brought about by the “mushrooming” of informal settlements inside and around the city proper which on a relatively rapid rate transform city landscapes and provide another set of tremendous challenges. Too bad, the Philippines which hosts one of the mega cities in the planet with about 4.0 million households with poor housing conditions is not an exemption.
In response, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, since 2001, has been issuing land proclamations aimed to dispose idle government properties for the urban poor dwellers. The government has reported that around 200,000 urban poor households have benefited from this program so far. Intentionally, or otherwise, land proclamations also provide infrastructure and other community development services. In this context, it is but timely and imperative to evaluate the impacts of land proclamations on the socio-economic conditions and livelihood opportunities of the urban poor, among others.
Penang, an island in what is now called Peninsular Malaysia, has grown from a small British colony in the 18th century to one of the most modern metropolitan areas in South East Asia today. A large contribution to the driving force of its rapid and orderly growth was due to the far-sightedness of its early administrators and planners and to the good system of planning and administration adopted since its early days. It had the advantage of having a legal and administration system based on those that were developed, tried and tested throughout the centuries of growth and development in England and Europe, as well as in their earlier colonies in Asia. Specifically it has adopted a town development and town planning system that has been influenced very much by English town planning and development philosophies, laws and procedures, but which was adapted throughout the decades to suit local situations.
The “Secondary Towns Urban Development Project” was implemented in the four largest secondary towns in Laos: Luang Prabang, Thakhek, Savannakhet and Pakse from 1998 to 2003.
The objectives of the Project were to:
1. improve the urban environment through appropriate urban infrastructure development and the effective and sustainable management of urban services,
2. further human development through environmental improvements, and
3. support economic growth through the development and management of sustainable and well planned infrastructure development and urban services
Jakarta as the capital city of Indonesia is the administrative center of the country and has a special status as autonomous area. It is a multi functional center of business, service and tourism, and the development of the city is driven by governmental policy as well as economy and society.
Today Jakarta Region consists of more than 18 Million people, Jakarta City itself has more than 8 Million inhabitants and it is growing fast beyond its capacity. After the economic crisis 1998 a lot of problems concerning social and economic disparities became obvious. Especially the social services as well as the environmental capacity are not adequate for the population growth and the basic question is, if the fast growing city development could and should be prevented or limited?
One reason for the rapid population growth of the city is the expansion of public transport like sky trains and new railway lines. A high percentage of the population of Jakarta are daily commuters from the surrounding area and suburbs of Jakarta city like Bekasi, Depok, Tangerang, Bogor, etc. They are no inhabitants of Jakarta but they need and use the facilities of the city.
New regulations and integrated spatial planning are needed. But due to the decentralization process the cooperation between Jakarta and the neighboring area is a big challenge for all participants.
Rural areas along the corridors have experienced a spatial transformation. According to McGee (1991), this phenomenon is called “kotadesasi”, a regional structural shift from agricultural to non-agricultural areas. The process not only refers to spatial dimensions of changes but also to socio-economic and cultural ones.
This research aims at understanding the process of regional transformation and analyzing the driving forces of regional transformation. This research employs primary data for analyzing the process of regional transformation and secondary data to understand the driving forces of regional transformation. Primary data are processed and analyzed by using qualitative descriptive methods. Secondary data processing employs the SPSS program which uses regression technique.
This research finds that regional transformation processes are a collection of long historical events. These events are linked one to the other thus producing the changes from rural characteristics to urban characteristics.
From the above analysis, it can be concluded that population density, population growth, percentage of non-farmers, percentage of built up area, and availability of social economic facilities are variables which influence regional transformation. Population density is the variable with the highest impact on regional transformation.
Key words : regional transformation, corridor, driving forces, process, accessibility
This paper herein discusses an urban driving force generated by campus activities with the case of Yogyakarta urban areas. Analyses are mainly from empirical and secondary data. Yogyakarta has a specific phenomenon as an education city, where 86 Universities are located. The students at university highly contribute to urbanization; more than 30 % of students come from areas across the Indonesian archipelago with a growth rate of 14.76 % a year. The case of Gadjah Mada University Campus shows that formerly the area was a bare land (Bulaksumur), outside of Yogyakarta’s municipality boundaries. Currently, the area develops into an urban area with the main characteristics of student economic services, such as food stall, photo copy facilities, internet, stationery, boarding house, followed by non-student economic activities (bank, motor dealer, retail, mini market and hotel). Furthermore, those activities modify space functions from settlement area to economic facilities. The process of urbanization is also indicated by social and economic transformation such as the shifting of agricultural activities to commercial and service activities, and pulls people and new investments into student related economic facilities. The same case also happens in the Islamic University of Indonesia (UII) campus, situated approximately 14 km from Gadjah Mada University to the north. The condition surrounding UII campus now is urbanized as compared to the situation in 1994 when the area was a rural area.
USE OF GIS IN MAPPING OPEN SPACES
FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIAL ALLOTMENT GARDEN SITES IN DISTRICTS 6 & 7 OF BARANGAY MACASANDIG, CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY
The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for urban agriculture planning presents a compelling decision scenario to local government officials. The research was carried out in Districts 6 and 7 of Barangay Macasandig area. The area has 10.50 percent or 14.09 hectares of open spaces possible for allotment gardening purposes. GIS has been used to match the suitability of these open spaces based on five parameters namely water resource, soil, proximity to road, proximity to market and proximity to houses for urban agriculture planning. AHP model was applied to identify the priority of these parameters. Digital maps, household survey, community maps and GPS ground truth data were used. Results showed that technical and community perspectives may vary in weighing decision elements. For both perspectives however, it revealed that water resource is the most important parameter in the selection of suitable areas. Finally, the integration of GIS and AHP identified thirteen (13) potential allotment garden sites with respect to area suitability and maps of potential communities.
Outside of the dominant tri-region mass of urban population (Metro Manila, Southern Tagalog Region and Central Luzon), urban growth in the Philippines is experienced in the metropolitan regions centering on regional capitals. One of these urban clusters in the Visayas Region is Metro Iloilo-Guimaras (MIG).
Metro Iloilo-Guimaras (MIG) is composed of the City of Iloilo, five municipalities in Iloilo Province and Guimaras Province located in the Western Visayas Region (Region VI) of the Philippines. While historically it had a thriving sugar industry, Iloilo had always been predominantly a trading and service center. Its economy kept in pace with the ebbs and tides of the economy of the two islands of Panay and Guimaras. As agricultural production rose, so did economic activity in Iloilo City. Iloilo province is one of the major agricultural production centers in the country.
The road to economic growth for developing countries has been paved with negative environmental effects, social conflicts, and trade-off. The rapid population growth highly concentrated in urban areas and industrialization have brought massive ecological changes. Considering the proximity of location, periurban in nature, and the prevailing trend in the utilization of Special Areas (special class and open spaces) it is safe to surmise that, under Cagayan de Oro setting, the denuded areas go most likely to accretion of open spaces, abandoned or under utilized area, while agricultural land area conversion finally goes to built-up areas. The current urbanization and mushrooming of economic activities accompanied by mass movement or in-migration of people from other places in Cagayan de Oro has imposed more pressure on all forms of pollution, causing harm to health and environment.
The level of morbidity in Cagayan de Oro City has been increasing more than the rate of its population growth. Although there was no study conducted that focused on this issues, the magnitude of its annual increase is alarming and needs to have priority attention. To address current issues affecting urbanization, industrialization and global warming, the Local Government unit of Cagayan de Oro started to implement innovative strategies in consonance with the Policy of Sustainable Development.
Globalisation and economic development have meant that cities have exhibited tremendous growth over the last three decades or so. This has given rise to superinduced development with its concomitant negative externalities. One such consequence is the growth of the city at the expense of heritage buildings and sites. Whether it is Kuala Lumpur, George Town, Manila, Hanoi or Jakarta, there are ample examples where heritage buildings have disappeared. Some examples from Malaysia are Eastern Hotel, Metropole Hotel, and Bok House. This paper looks at some of the values of these heritage buildings to show the need for urban conservation and heritage policies to preserve the architectural and social history of cities. In spite of the Heritage Act (2005) in Malaysia, many heritage buildings continue to be in danger of being demolished to give way to modern apartments and offices especially private properties. Whereas stakeholders, landowners, developers, local authorities, etc., have been identified as urban drivers to bring about so-called positive changes in the urban morphology, heritage laws have often been viewed as “reacting” or “hampering” the processes of urban development. This paper argues that conservationists are not “reactors” but should be given due cognisance as “actors” to ensure that cities continue to have an endemic Southeast Asian flavour and soul because of their inherent architectural, historical, social or engineering value.
Well-managed mass transit and communication systems are very important driving forces for urban development. Not only do they help mobilizing people, goods and services, but good systems are also able to help lessening the magnitude of traffic problems and the costs of traveling for people in big cities.
Chiang Mai City is considered to be the second largest city of Thailand next to Bangkok. With the number of population in the city and its vicinity of around 400,000 people, including visitors, whether they are tourists, businessmen and students who come and stay in the area, good transportation services were expected to sufficiently facilitate their traveling.
Surprisingly, the services of mass transit within and nearby the City, so far have been unsuccessfully operated. This paper is an attempt to investigate the factors both of the server’s side and of the user’s side that have influence upon the operation.
Needed data were collected through the reviewing of related documents as well as interviewing of the local people. The collected data were then analyzed by means of content analysis. The findings can be summarized as follows.
On the server’s side, the Municipality, the factors that induced the failure are:
1) the number of buses in service is still not enough when the number of population in the area is taken into consideration;
2) irregularity of the time schedules;
3) service routes are considered to be inappropriate;
4) a strong competition from locally operated means of transportation.
Cagayan de Oro (CdO) City in Northern Mindanao, Philippines, is considered as one of the important cities in Mindanao and in the country. Being a port city and capital of Northern Mindanao, it is economically linked with the other port cities in the other islands of the country and extends its socio-economic and political influence to Bukidnon and Misamis Oriental. With its increasing population, the Metro CDO Special Development Project (MCSDP) in 1990 together with the joint leadership of the Cagayan de Oro-Iligan Chambers of Commerce and Industry and with the support of the Regional Development Council (RDC) X and XII, the MCSDP, the Cagayan de Oro-Iligan Corridor Special Development Project (CIC-SDP) was launched to commence in 1993. The revised proposal for CIC International Airport will start this year, 2007, and projected to be completed in 2020.
After 16 years, the Laguidingan International Airport Project is on its way to become a reality. Today, the Laguindingan International Airport Development Project is a flagship project undertaken by the National Government with counterpart project funds sourced from the Economic Development Cooperation Fund (EDCF) of the Republic of Korea through its fund manager Korea Export-Import Bank, and from the Nordic Investment Bank of Norway.
On August 28, Cagayan de Oro City will celebrate the fiesta of its patron saint, St. Augustine of Hippo. Every year, the City looks back to its identity by showcasing cultural artistry of its indigenous communities — the lumad. This is not an isolated practice but a trend all over the country: Towns and cities, in their efforts to earn from tourism have “re-created” local festivals. These festivals are “rooted” in the “traditional” practices of the local inhabitants — the lumad. The creation of festivities, without doubt, contributed to local tourism economy. However, although the local governments earn from tourism by showcasing their cultural heritage, the allocation of budget to sustain its source, e.g., the lumad culture, or the preservation of heritage sites is minimal to nil. Often, instead of preservation, the sites are destroyed in the context of “development”.
Prior to 1960 Khon Kaen, a city in north eastern Thailand, was just a small town. Modernization was confined only in and around the town center, where the market and government sector were located. There were only three main asphalt-paved roads. Electricity and tap water were available only in the center of town. The National Plan for Economics that was established during the 1960s enabled Khon Kaen to develop a high rate of city growth and enlargement. According to the policy, Khon Kaen was chosen to be the central city of development in the northeast region. The mega project was supported by the Central Government to build up a new Official Center in the northern part of the city while in the western part many Public Health Centers including a large provincial hospital were established. There were a total of 99 official sectors newly established at that time. The basic infrastructure was also improved, especially by the construction of Ubonratana Dam, a water reservoir which is located about 50km away from the city, with the main objectives of providing electricity and water supplies for the whole city. Moreover, roads were extended in every direction around Khon Kaen to connect with neighbouring provinces. One of the most important developments was the establishment of educational institutes, such as Khon Kaen University, Thai-German Technology College and Nursing College, etc. These helped to give the city a high growth rate as the center of regional government, transportation as well as education.
Almost all people in the world are urbanizing to cities and most of them are moving to coastal cities. The tendency of urban sprawl as urban pressures is caused by urbanization, economic growth, industries, transportation, tourism, and other magnetic factors. Because of the fast growing coastal cities, the environment of the coastal zone is endangered. Many environmental issues and problems affect the coastal cities, such as anthropogenic effects, natural disasters, climate change, and other socio-economic issues which also have severe impacts on the environmental quality. Policy, environment, and management are not well prepared. Nowadays, Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) is expanding all over the world, also in Indonesia, which is rather a new concept that cannot yet be implemented widely. Based on the fact that the coastal cities should be managed in a sustainable way, the paradigm of ICZM can be introduced as an iterative process in managing the coast. This article explains the need of ICZM for sustainable coastal cities and mostly for Megapoles, as a lesson learned and a paradigm combining new ecological models such as metrofitting, green infrastructure, ecological footprint, and green financial. The public policy should lead to a better life for the people living in the coastal cities based on the local knowledge and public participation of the communities. The discussion will be to define healthy cities in the future, the stressors and the considerations for sustainable coastal cities.
Your Excellency, Colleagues and Friends, Ladies and Gentlemen,
It is my great pleasure and honour to welcome you all here in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, for our fourth ForUm event, the Summer School on “Urbanisation – Challenges and Conflicts”. It is already the second occasion that we, the ForUm network of Southeast Asian and German experts on urbanisation, meet for a Summer School this year 2007 in which we are focusing on the topic of “urban driving forces” as a new perspective on urbanisation processes.
Distinguished Guests Ladies and Gentlemen,
today I have great honor and pleasure to welcome all of you in the second important international summer school in Phnom Penh, Kingdom of Cambodia. This event is organized by the Housing Rights Task Force (HRTF), DED and University of Cologne via financial supports from DAAD, GTZ-LMP and HRTF. Taking this opportunity, on behalf of the local network coordinator, I would like to highly appreciate the active efforts of the supportive organizers from all relevant organizations, institutions, authorities and private companies which have supported, co- operated and actively participated with constructive manner and high attention of urban development over time as well as in the future.
Distinguished Guests Ladies and Gentlemen,
In a knowledge-based economy, cities are expected to be the hub of innovation activities. Such activities in turn will help drive the productivity growth and determine the competitiveness of the national economy. Research in recent years has shown that the design and the management of a city could have a very significant influence on its innovative capacity. At the same time, there are various challenges brought about by the urbanization process that have to be tackled carefully in order for a city to realize its full economic potential. These include issues such as housing rights, rural-urban gap, infrastructure provision and financing, and environmental management etc.
The formation of urban agglomeration in Indonesia poses a tremendous challenge for the agricultural sector and the food supply industry. While there is a need to transport more food over large distances, it is also necessary to respond to an increasingly diversified consumer demand in terms of agricultural product quality and food safety standards. On the other hand, low competitiveness of local agricultural products due to low quality and safety are issues necessary to respond to. A constant decrease of public investments in agriculture as well as land use changes towards housing due to urban development has resulted in land and water degradation and socio-economic problems.
There are five cities and many urban areas in Cambodia. The three biggest cities among five are Phnom Penh, Seam Reap and Sihanouk Ville which have seen the greatest development in the last decade.
Phnom Penh is an administrative city while Seam Reap and Sihanouk Ville are tourist cities. Therefore, they have grown from different actors and processes. However, these cities have many common actors or backgrounds or processes that are related to land management site.
Property investment is one important factor which contributes to city development, for example new housing construction, apartments, high rise building and factories have grown rapidly, the land market is also well functioning. These developments depend on land tenure which now is more secure than last decade. Most land parcels in Cambodia have no land title, systematic land registration was established in recent year 2002 and it has been implemented in eleventh provinces and cities, Phnom Penh, Seam Reap and Sihanouk Ville are among these cities. Now, some owners mortgage money from bank by using their land title. In addition, land transfer tax Phnom Penh and other cities are increased rapidly Master plans for the capital city have been mapped, decentralization of responsibility for issuing land titles and housing construction permission was empowered to the local level.
Conflicts between government and citizens have been common in the last decade of the Indonesian development processes. The government position in the development process was very dominant and there was no participatory approach or involvement of stakeholders in any city planning and government process.
In consequence the citizens don't have any sense of belonging or responsibility and no awareness of their potential as one of the urban drivers.
On the other hand, social coherence is very well known in the Yogyanese culture, and "Gotong Royong" (working together) characterized the historical daily life of the people and is a very highly valuated tradition. In the modern days the Gotong Royong value is getting dim and left behind, especially in the urban communities.
Since several disasters happened in Indonesia, there are severe destructions in terms of physical, social, economic, and environmental aspects. After the Tsunami and earthquake in Aceh on December 26, 2004, that had killed 150 thousand people and caused severe damage to infrastructure, and the earthquake on May 27, 2006 in Yogyakarta Province, that had caused severe damage to most of the infrastructure and killed 5 thousand people in the Southern part of the province, some efforts and post disaster programs from the government tried to encourage and recover the area affected by the disaster. These programs seem to be well implemented, but mostly are not aware of the area in the range of disaster. Some programs only focus on the rehabilitation of the infrastructure and the need of the victims, neglecting the environment and the better planning for hazard mitigation.
The progress of a country or region has often been measured by the amount of urban development in its area. Some of these countries, especially in the Asian region, have been experiencing fast growths of urban development projects in recent years and are reaping vast economic benefits from them. Spurred on by these economic successes, the South East Asian countries have been scrambling to carry out many massive development projects in their countries and are planning for many more. Average incomes of the people are increasing tremendously, fueled by the opening up of global markets for the cheaper products, labour and real estate in these developing countries. With the increase in income, and the release for the sale and private ownership of land, there is a great increase in the demand and prices of land and properties for housing, commercial space and industries. Vast lands and properties are being grabbed by the local rich as well as by foreigners, and large amounts of investment put in to develop these lands for urban purposes and for further profit. However, although a vast number of people reap much economic and other benefit from these projects, there are always large sectors of the people that do not enjoy the benefits.
One of the most striking features in Malaysian cities today is the existence of distinct residential groupings based on ethnic lines. This has heightened after the implementation of the New Economic Policy in 1970, which encouraged the movements of Bumiputras to the cities. This paper attempts a general survey of the process of Malay urbanisation and their increasing residential compartmentalisation. While geographers tend to focus on the socio-spatial dimensions of these processes (where and why), this paper also attempts to see how, as urban entrepreneurialism becomes the norm in development policies, residential compartmentalisation is internalising cohesiveness and yet at the same time resulting in an increasing empowerment and exclusionary closure of urban spaces. These give rise to questions of ethnicity, identity, power and social justice, which are basic notions of urban social sustainability vital to the process of urbanisation in Southeast Asian cities.
Many Southeast Asian countries have encouraged the tourism business as an important economic growth generator and have gained profits. Endowed with many physical, historical and cultural resources, Myanmar has also promoted the tourism business as a means for economic development, especially after adopting the market oriented economy in 1989. Apart from well-known places like Bagan and Inlay Lake, Mrauk-U, an ancient capital of Rakhine in the western part of Myanmar, is one of the most interesting tourist attractions because of its ancient pagodas and old palace ruins. Through tourism, not only the local economic development of Mrauk-U, but also the tourism sector of Myanmar can surely be promoted.
At present, Mrauk-U is encountering many problems in developing tourism business. To solve these problems to a certain extent, what Mrauk-U needs now is the tight social coherence among the tourism related businessmen to have more self-support and decision making power to somehow resist the undesirable delay of government institutions in taking action for tourism development. This study is to point out the need of social coherence by creating a strong local tourism management organization, and to suggest how to organize it. Thus a primary investigation is made to understand the actual situation of tourism in Mrauk-U, with the aim to provide valuable suggestions for further tourism development which ensure the socioeconomic development of Mrauk-U with least negative effects.
Land is the single greatest significant resource in most countries particularly in a fast urbanizing society. Land tenure and land administration arrangements provide the basic infrastructure for development. Varied, and oftentimes, conflicting demands in the urbanizing world for land management, security of tenure, access to limited land resources and urban planning require a systematic and dynamic approach to improve land tenure and land administration. In this regard, the emergence of good governance principles in achieving development goals need to be extended in land tenure and land administration.
Governance, as defined, is the process of governing. It is how the society is managed and how the competing priorities and interests of different groups are reconciled including the formal institutions of government and informal arrangements, as well (FAO 2007). In fact, the absence of good governance is the reason why many countries continue to fail in their efforts at poverty reduction and in their quest for economic and human development (ADB 2005). Likewise, weak governance in land tenure and administration undermines efforts to secure tenure, restore rights, promote urban inclusiveness and enhance real property markets and transactions and in some cases, leads to further marginalization of the poor and disadvantaged groups. In fact, in the Philippines, it does not only undermine the role and potential of land tenure and land administration systems but already threatens the country's global competitiveness.
Pasay City is the third smallest political area in the National Capital Region (NCR). It has a population of 408,000 - 41 percent of which are considered poor (based on 2000 National Statistics Office survey) - and a population density of 2,553 persons/per sq. km. It is divided into 201 barangays (villages), one of the biggest in the NCR, 46 percent of which (92 barangays) are classified as depressed. Eighteen percent of Manila's slum dwellers reside in this city.
Pasay City is considered as the transportation hub of the country. The country's main domestic and international airports are located here. The majority of buses have their terminals in this city. All modes of transportation (heavy rail, light rail, buses, jeepneys, etc.) to and from major NCR destinations can be found here. This accessibility of Pasay City also makes it the preferred place for rural migration.
Unemployment and underemployment levels are high. Naturally, when income and savings are low, access to credit is limited. In most cases the only credit available to Pasay's poor residents, for emergency and other purposes, are those provided by informal and small time lenders.
Poverty remains the central development issue in the Philippines and, despite the ambitious development goals set in various development plans, the country has not been able to sustain the economic growth required to reduce poverty to acceptable levels. In Cagayan de Oro City (CDOC), it has been recognized that one of the weaknesses of the Local Government Unit (LGU) is its high poverty incidence. As such, a careful and well-thought of plan is essential to address important issues such as poverty. The Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP) of the city was already approved but there is a need to revisit and/or develop the Comprehensive Development Plans (CDPs). Thus, it is the ultimate aim of the project to be able to assist the LGU of CDOC by providing coordination among stakeholders (e.g. LGU, NGOs, private organizations, academe and the community) in the development of its CDP particularly on the agricultural sector to address poverty among farming families. The development of the Comprehensive Agricultural Development Plan (CADeP) will be in accordance with the city's CLUP and an initial assessment of its contribution to farming families will be conducted. Specifically, the study aims to: (a) map the assets of the community; (b) determine the parameters that would influence land suitability and identify priority of these parameters; (c) ascertain location of potential farming families; (d) perform land suitability analysis and develop recommendations to be incorporated in the CADeP; and (e) implement the CADeP and initially assess its contribution to farming families.
To address current issues affecting urbanization, industrialization, climate change and global warming, the City Government of Cagayan de Oro initiates to implement strategies in consonance with the Policy of Sustainable Development in partnership with PUEBLO DE ORO Corporation, the Provincial Government of Bukidnon, and the Protected Area Management Board of the Mt. Kitanglad Range (PAMB) and also with the following participating organizations: City Local Environment and Natural Resources Office (CLENRO), Agricultural Productivity Office, Liceo de Cagayan University, HARIBON Foundation and the Rotary Club in developing a property within the Pueblo de Oro Township into an URBAN RAINFOREST.
There is a network of natural habitats inside the Pueblo de Oro Township- the ridges, and creeks and knoll area. These places teem with different plants and animals, from those as small as the insects to those as large as the grass owl and the causal birds.
Sadly, these plants and animals are disappearing too quickly because of the encroachment of their homes due to rapid growth and urbanization of the city. The only way to attract more of the local plant and animal species to return is to-create their habitat, i.e. homes. The best way to do this is to plant endemic tree species or wildlings that come from the rainforest of Mt. Kitanglad in Bukidnon province and nearby mountains.
Social cohesion is described by Colleta et al (2001:2) as "the glue that bonds society together, promoting the common good". It can also "bridge ethnic and religious groups [and] vertical linkages in which state and market institutions' interaction with communities and peoples... further cement the bond of a society...." This description may also apply to "urban cohesion" as a concept. Moreover, social or urban cohesiveness towards achieving a particular goal may either be conscious or subconscious. The conscious level may refer to programs that are implemented by various institutions for a particular intent or a political ideology. Subconscious urban cohesion may be a particular unplanned "common" urban activity. Conscious and subconscious urban cohesions may be influenced by external and internal market-driven forces. But whether these are consciously programmed or subconsciously done as a response to the market driven forces, these all make an urban character. Thus, the case of modern contraceptive use in Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines, is an example of subconscious urban cohesion.
Cagayan de Oro City is ideally located at the center of the northern coast of Mindanao island. In 1871, it became the capital of the 2nd district of Mindanao under a Spanish military governor and was the center of culture and commerce. Since the 1870s, the capital then known as Cagayan de Misamis, was considered the main port of entry to Mindanao for travelers coming from the Visayas and Luzon islands. Most of these travelers settled in Cagayan de Misamis and their families prospered, becoming prominent members of the community.
Today, Cagayan de Oro is one of the fastest growing cities of the country in terms of trade and investments. For decades the city has been considered the most peaceful in Mindanao and this has attracted a large group of migrants who came from other parts of the country including a rapidly growing number of foreigners. In fact, of the eleven elected Mayors since Cagayan de Oro became a chartered city in 1950, four of them came from migrant families.
The Cagayan de Oro Historical and Cultural Commission saw that with the city's high rate of migrancy came the introduction of different cultures to the local populace. There was a long period when the city's cultural landscape was described as "barren" since at that time, the local government did not include cultural and historical projects as its priorities.
Chiang Mai City has been growing very fast in the past 20 years after the 5th National and Economic Development Plan was promulgated. The plan mentioned is aimed at the expansion of the development schemes to other parts of the country instead of letting Bangkok as the only growth pole of the nation. From the year 1985 on, many high buildings, infrastructures and other service facilities have been mushrooming in the City.
The situation has caused the problem of labor shortage which is one among the important driving force in the process of urbanization. A number of laborers have been moving into Chiang Mai City. Certainly, a large amount of them are moving in illegally. There is no alternative, however, as far as the City needs to be developed and the local or domestic laborers do not need to do any hard and low-paid jobs. This gives way for illegal immigrants to assume the vacancy.
Unavoidably, various socio-economic problems have arisen, some, induced by and some, stemming from these illegal laborers. Among those problems are contagious diseases; social conflicts with the local people and a number of criminal cases. To abolish and/or mitigate such setback effects, an official coherence among involved agents, i.e. Provincial Health Office, Labor and Welfare Office, Immigration Office, and business owners must be initiated and put into action.
Khon Kaen is Thailand's fourth largest city with an urban population of 1.8 millions. The city has played important roles to the northeastern region of Thailand, particularly in health care facilities, educational center, and has been developing as logistic hub of Greater Mekong Region (GMS) countries, which resulted from the Asian Development Bank (ADB) Strategic Plan in providing transportation linkage between the countries. Because of recent urban growth, the core area of Khon Kaen has expanded and demanded for more labor to support new developments. As a result a large number of rural population have continuously migrated to the urban area for working in both formal and informal sectors. Many lead lives in slums without public service facilities, which are considered as unhealthy living environments.
An experience of the project "Secured Housing (Baan Mankong)" under the support of a public organization--Community Organization Development Institute (CODI) will be the center of the discussion in this paper. The project has focused on the community-driven process to work from a fundamental level in order to improve the living conditions of the low-income group. The idea of community and city housing has been established by community participation from the beginning of the survey process to decision-making of community development plan. Then, a collaborative process with municipal governments and with other organizations concerned has jointly developed a plan that allows communities to be developed with government finance and support.
Urban coherence/ urban cohesion as key challenge for urban futures
Dhaka is one of the most challenging megacities in regard to its water resources management. The population of Dhaka city is presently about 12 million and the growth trend indicates that by the year 2010 it would be about 15.5 million. This increase of population would create water supply demand of additional 42% of the present production, which has to be met either from the surface water sources or by groundwater sources. In the city, 411 tubewells are in operation now to supply water, which is about 82% of the total supply of Dhaka water Supply Authority. Due to huge extraction of groundwater, the groundwater level is decreasing rapidly (about 2-3 m/yr). Again, the tremendously polluted surface water sources are not suitable for water supply. In order to alleviate pressure on groundwater resources and to meet the water supply deficit, it is now urgently required to identify alternative sources of water and to investigate the environmental, social and economic feasibility. To facilitate work for the the decision makers, a decision support is therefore necessary, which will consider the geographic information of the water resources within the city. A brief pre-feasibility review of technical aspects clearly indicates that there is high potential for artificial recharge project implementation in Dhaka city. Extreme rainfall events during monsoon, large amounts of treated water, possibilities of imported water make the clear need for further analysis of artificial recharge project planning and management evident.
Cities are expanding on a huge scale. A lot of development activities have the goal to accommodate the growing need of people living in a city. The essential infrastructure to ensure a safe, secure and pleasant life of the city dwellers such as schools, colleges, mosques, hospitals, offices, residential areas, industrial areas, streets, drainage canals, water-, gas- and electricity supply systems, etc. is managed by various departments and service providers.
The growing cities are facing huge challenges due to insufficient infrastructure. Besides problems related to housing and transportation, in Bangladesh inadequate water supply, water logging, unsatisfactory sanitation coverage and health hazards are major issues. For instance, previously, the rainy day was considered as a symbol of romance but now people are getting scared of heavy rainfall because it creates inundation of streets and houses and causes problems to their livelihood.
Such problems are generated from uncoordinated and unplanned development, and the effects of climate change are aggravating the situation. The departments undertake projects to construct buildings, streets, water supply networks, and drainage canals without incorporating the geographical consideration. A solution to the problems is needed to be carried out by using modern technology. The use of satellite mapping and imagery, remote sensing and Geographic Information Sciences (GIS) should be adopted in the planning process in order to capture and store spatial data and to support the problem analysis and display.
The Baap Geog (administrative block) is located in the vicinity of the college of natural resources. The community faces an acute shortage both in drinking and irrigation water supply. The college has therefore initiated a study on the management of the watershed within the jurisdiction of the Geog. As per the land use data of 2000, the study site holds an area of 2608.894 hectares. The Geog has 406 households (Population and Housing Census, 2005), with a population of 3326 as of 2005. The main objective of the study is to discharge the College’s social responsibilities as an organization towards the local community, help the poor and needy to emerge out of the poverty cycle by facilitating income generating activities and provide a forum for the staff and students of the college to engage with the farming community.
While a preliminary geospatial study has been carried out, the ground-based study is yet to be done. The preliminary study on the watershed management was based on the land use base map of 2000, DEM derived from a contour map of 40 m interval and other physiographic digital maps of Bhutan 1997. The analyses of the data were done using GIS software, ArcGIS 9, version 2. The following criteria were used for the analyses:
1. No timber harvesting will be allowed within 40 meters of all water bodies (streams, springs, ponds, rivers) and 100 meters of buffer will be maintained alongside the motor-able roads.
2. No harvesting activities will be carried out in slopes above 50?.
This paper will provide a brief introduction into the status of Cambodian national spatial data infrastructure in view of the institutional framework, national geospatial data policies and regulations, national geospatial technical standards and challenges, and the development of a national geodetic network. It also shows GIS contributions to the national policy (Rectangular Strategy) of Cambodia that was set up in 2005. The rectangles or sectors involved with GIS applications are listed in the paper. The paper visualizes a GIS application by discussing a case study of land-use planning in Battambang District, Battambang Province, Cambodia.
Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) is perceived as a favoured destination of national and international investments, with rapid growth in sectors like real estate, retail, tourism, healthcare, software etc. In the 2001 Census, Kolkata city population was 4.58 million, of whom 1.49 million lived in slums. However, today parts of the city of Kolkata are beginning to resemble more economically prosperous cities like Mumbai, New Delhi, Bangalore and Hyderabad in outward trappings of affluence: foreign cars, shopping malls, multiplexes, retail outlets of global brands, and flyovers mark the urban landscape. But the acute economic crisis of the city from the 1960s has also meant decay of all that made this city pre-eminent in artisan skills, in skilled labour, in industrial ancillary units; in educational and academic institutions; scholarship, socially concerned civic activism, and a strong civil society. NGOs represent more private domain activity rather than rooted, popular public processes.
In the last half century the world has faced dramatic growth of its urban population. The number of so-called megacities increased in the period from 1975 to today from 4 to 22, mostly in less developed regions. Urbanisation is arguably the most dramatic form of irreversible land transformation. While urbanisation is a worldwide phenomenon, it is exceptionally dynamic in India, where unprecedented urban growth rates have occurred over the last 20 years. The pattern of urbanisation in India is characterized by continuous concentration of population and activities in large cities. This is manifested in a high percentage of urban population being concentrated in “class-1 cities” (cities having a population of more than a million), and its population has systematically gone up over the decades in the last century. In this uncontrolled explosive situation city planning lacks data and information to measure, monitor and understand urban sprawl processes. The analysis of such changes has become an important application of multispectral remote sensing data. Using time series of remote sensing data to classify the urban footprints enables detection of temporal and spatial urban sprawl, redensification and urban development in India.
Watershed analysis is very important for water resource management, since it is the basis for hydrologic modeling. It is therefore important to precisely delineate watersheds in order to define catchment areas. Though watershed delineation by manually digitizing on a map is widely used, it is at the same time a very time consuming and possibly error-prone method.
ArcHydro, a tool in ESRI® ArcGIS 9.x, has been developed especially for dealing with water resource modeling. To faciliate the most basic use of this software, which is watershed delineation and defining catchment areas, Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) have to be used. Based on this three-dimensional terrain information ArcHydro is able to automatically calculate watersheds and catchment areas.
DEMs can be derived from any kind of elevation data such as contour lines or elevation point data and this elevation data can also be derived directly from satellite data. This article will demonstrate how watersheds are delineated using elevation data from satellite radar imagery (Satellite Radar Thematic Mapping (SRTM)).
Physical planning frequently requires land-use information. Unfortunately, in most developing countries, the available land-use information sometimes cannot satisfy the need for particular planning tasks, when newness, accuracy, compatibility and relevance are taken into consideration. On the other hand, the advent of satellite remote sensing technology offers a wide range of data availability with various spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions. In addition, geographic information systems offer capability and flexibility in combining data coming from different sources and in different formats, so that land-use information can easily be integrated with other spatial data to support planning processes. With respect to this background, a new perspective on the development of land-use information has been developed in the form of a versatile land-use classification scheme. In this classification scheme, the land-use information is broken down into five elements, namely spectral-related cover, spatial, temporal, ecological and socio-economic dimensions. Each dimension is presented in a separate layer, and is generated using different spatial processing methods. The categorisation of each dimension is also designed for multi-resolution mapping. An example of Semarang area, Central Java, Indonesia is given using Landsat ETM+ and Quickbird imagery as the data source.
In the last few years, the Government of Indonesia has stressed the importance of reducing poverty as the prior object of development. These issues are also being developed in local government, including the local government of Wonosobo. Poverty is a complex and multi dimensional problem; in order to solve it, a comprehensive study focusing on the root factors of the problem is needed.
To construct a micro planning system that is based on fact and evidence without neglecting the poor, the local government of Wonosobo District has held a program to map the economic structure using local indicators and participatory poverty assessment as methodology. Poverty data at the national level are obtained through a survey using the same indicators. But due to the complexity of the local region problems, it is almost impossible to use the national level data to solve the problem.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the process of micro planning in Wonosobo District using the poverty mapping as the prior object of economic structure, together with the landuse data and strengthened by the basic infrastructures mapping, to collect every basic infrastructure point available in every hamlet and village also in the urban area of the district. The database includes education, health, road, energy/electricity and water availability.
The use and application of GIS in developing countries, particularly continental Africa, is still an exclusive domain of just a few elites. The situation is further exacerbated by the fact that GIS application is a relatively recent technology in the continent. As such, urban planning has largely been done without considering GIS. This paper looks at Kenya’s urban planning in view of the infrastructural pressures exerted by the high number of people who migrate from rural to urban areas. The recent demolition of residential houses and business premises within the country in order to provide space for the expansion of existing roads or construction of new ones are discussed. The paper also points out planning dilemma that face the city council of Nairobi, Kenya’s capital city, in the light of rapidly increasing urban population. In view of all these urban planning challenges, the paper discusses the role of GIS application in future urban planning in Kenya. The paper concludes by identifying GIS needs such as participatory GIS planning, a skilled and stable human resource base among others. In an attempt to mainstream GIS application in developing countries such as Kenya, the paper puts emphasis on institutional networking and linkages as being among key areas for future co-operation.
Capacity building in geographic information systems (GIS) is becoming a basic requirement for people carrying out spatial analysis. It is one of the keys in realizing the reduction of risks to hazards. Kenya having suffered from several hazards as a result of the changing climatic conditions, with the hazards changing trends is introducing GIS in addressing the hazards. GIS is a tool that is globally used with a high percentage of success in identification, monitoring and management of the impacts of hazards and reduction of risks. The developments in identification and monitoring activities related to hazard assessment have greatly improved in the developed countries in contrast to the developing countries, this being generally because of the improved capacity in GIS. The capacity in GIS is low in the developing countries, for example in Kenya. This is due to lack of its introduction in the higher learning institutions. GIS was introduced in middle level colleges first. There it was and is offered at diploma and certificate level. The introduction of GIS into the University started as single units in the various departments and a very low progress in integrated and practice oriented curricula development can be observed for the last 10 years. Maseno has a strong capability of developing into a hub for GIS in this region. It is located in an area surrounded by Kisumu city, several secondary schools, and a research corridor.
Department of Geography is upon Faculty of Social Science, National University of Laos, Lao’s People Democracy Republic, which has established Since October 1996. Department of Geography has been following the strategies of National University of Laos, and also the policies of the faculty of Social Sciences are: to promote the teaching – studying, researching skill for the lecture. To encourage the lectures improve foreigner languages for extension co-operation with world wide for sharing the knowledge and getting experiences from many countries. Thus, in order to those duties the Department of Geography starts from curriculum development, to promote quality of processing studying and learning (theories parallel with practicing on the field), which is produced the human resources to serve the society need. Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing subjects are priority promotion of Department of Geography, but we are quite limited human resources and technology on these. Therefore, to receive the main goals is not easy to carry on; these issues are very challenging for us.
Government agencies and local authorities in Malaysia have long been using computers and GIS in their work. In particular, the departments responsible for the various processes of town and country planning (or urban and regional planning) find the use of GIS invaluable, as much of their work uses information that is expressed in spatial formats. The procedures for town and country planning in Malaysia are spelled out in the country’s Town and Country Act of 1976, which is modeled after UK’s 1947 act of the same name. Specifically, the act requires the preparation of a structure plan for every state and a more detailed local plan for every local authority area. A later amendment to the act requires also the preparation of a National Physical Plan for the whole country. These are essentially physical plans and they are used mainly to control and coordinate the use and development of land and the protection of the environment in all these areas. In the process of preparing these plans, comprehensive data on all relevant planning matters, including social and economic issues, have to be gathered and analyzed to identify present and projected problems that need to be addressed in the plans.
Malawi attained her independence in 1964 following an election and proceeded to be ruled under an autocratic rule of a one-party regime for 30 years. When she returned to a multi-party system of politics in 1994 the new democracy had to be consolidated by among other things adopting the democratic system of decentralisation, hence she adopted and passed the decentralisation policy and the new Local Government Act respectively.
The New Local Government Act places the responsibility of producing local development plans on the local governments themselves. Malawi, like many developing countries, adopted the new planning system when probably they were least prepared to face the challenges that go with adopting such new methods.
One such area of planning expertise that has not fully received the required and deserving support with the setting in of the decentralised urban planning and implementation in Malawi. The following points form part of the crucial factors that frustrate this process:
1. Human resource is not sufficient in District Assemblies (rural local governments). The department mandated to undertake physical planning in Malawi is still at regional level in terms of human resource availability. Little effort has been made to devolve the functions of the said department to district assemblies to undertake formulation and implementation of physical development plans.
Over the years, the Malawi government has adapted a decentralized system of government in running the affairs of the local areas in the country. The decentralization process through the local government Act of 1998 has established 38 local authorities, including Zomba District Assembly, throughout the country. The Act also empowers local government authorities to promote infrastructural development and economic development through the District Development Planning System. Thus every three years assemblies are obliged to produce a development plan of the respective local government area.
Essentially, the District Development Planning System (DDPS) is a local level planning framework developed to ensure that planning is a participatory process and works from the bottom upwards. The DDPS encourages community participation from village level to the district assembly level by employing methods such as Participation Rural Appraisal and Village Action Planning. However, there is no clear cut methodology used by the Village Development Committees to identify and screen projects at a local level. In addition, planning aspects such as access data collection, data analysis, mapping and access profiles and implementers of access interventions are not adequately addressed in the DDP System.
It is against this background that Zomba District Assembly has adopted an Integrated Rural Accessibility Planning (IRAP) tool to complement planning at local level.
Watersheds are made up of a number of components. Watershed environments have several physical, biophysical, social, socio-cultural, economic, technological and institutional factors. Those factors are also influenced by policy interventions of different scales. These factors and policy interventions are interrelated to each other and sometimes very complicated to understand. The most difficult part of analysing watersheds is to combine several spatial factors to give the overall picture of the processes at work in a watershed. Without having the better understanding of the factors and interventions within a watershed environment the management activities could hardly achieve their goal. A holistic approach on collecting and integrating the watershed-based information is highly required for the better management of the watershed.
Using Akwa Ibom State as an example, this paper justifies the need for a GIS based land use/land cover change early warning system. The components and capabilities of the system are examined. A digital database for the early warning system is created. As part of the database, land use/land cover maps of the area for the period 1984 to 2003 were produced using standardized methodologies such as the FAO Land cover classification system. The Land use/Land cover maps were produced from Landsat TM satellite data using supervised classification. For change detection, the classified images were compared at pixel level. Using this approach, the location, nature and direction of land use/land cover changes were modelled. Urban growth and development in the area was also modelled. Furthermore, water samples were taken from rivers for analysis to determine the water quality. Personal interviews of community leaders were carried out at different randomly chosen locations to determine past and present status of biodiversity in the area. The implications of observed changes in landuse/land cover on water quality, climate, biodiversity, and food security in the area were examined using a GIS based approach. The Early Warning System based analysis reveals that some urban centres have expanded into farmlands/fallow lands and surrounding secondary forest, quite a number of plant and animal species have been lost. As a result, food supplies [especially vegetables and staple foods] to a number of urban centres have been reduced.
Urban planning is too important to be left in the hands of urban planners. This statement might have sounded rather provocative in the past. These days, thanks to an increasing awareness of the plurality of perspectivism, the contention of different modes of thinking and doing is widely recognized. This paper seeks to appreciate the problems of urban development from the semantic approach. There are a number of polarities of meaning between civil society and state authority. They are, among others, as follows:
According to the United Nations, the world population will increase by 2.5 billion over the next 43 years, passing from the current 6.7 billion to 9.2 billion in 2050. The anticipated population growth will mainly take place in less developed regions of the world accompanying the phenomenon of large-scale urbanisation. Asia is the region where about 60 percent of the world population currently lives, and most of the largest megacities – cities of more than 10 million people such as Tokyo, Mumbai, Dhaka, Shanghai, Manila, and Jakarta – are located there. Over the next four decades, Asia and Africa will have a strong increase in their urban populations. It is estimated that by mid-century, most of the urban population of the world will be concentrated in Asia (54%) and Africa (19%). This development but also the growing awareness of global climate and environmental changes emphasises sustainable urban development as well as ecological urban planning in Asian and African countries. In this regard, geo-information plays an important role to detect and analyse urbanisation progress and its effects on urban ecosystems, and to support urban and environmental planning. For this purpose remote sensing offers various advantages such as fast gathering of up-to-date geodata, simultaneous recording of wide-range areas, digital format, and direct integration into GIS. Particularly, the new generation of satellite systems with a very high geometric resolution such as IKONOS, QuickBird, and Terra-SAR-X opens up new perspectives in very heterogeneous and compact urban areas.
Seleit Area constitutes the north eastern part of Khartoum state in Sudan. It is located between 32° 31`- 33° 00` E and 15° 45`- 16° 00` N; and has an area of 1,150 km². The area is a flat plain with some scattered cropouts. It is of a semi arid climate, where the spatial variation in amount and duration of rainfall during the rainy season is dominant (average annual rainfall 120 mm), with sparse vegetation. About 80% of the area is dominated by the rangeland with little cultivation near the Nile and in the courses of the wadis (ephemeral seasonal streams). The main wadis of this region are El Kangar, El Seleit, El Jaili, and El Kabbashi. The area experienced destructive flash floods due to rainstorms with high intensity and short duration in addition to the sparse vegetation. During the years1988, 1994, 1998 and 2001, the area was subjected to severe flash floods that left huge losses for the settlement there. The assessment of the potential floodwater harvesting in the area was carried out using the NAM Rainfall-Runoff model to estimate the potential runoff. The watersheds of the four wadis were defined and calculated using ArcHydro. Due to the application of GIS and remote sensing the potential of water harvesting in the study area could be analysed and can be integrated into the regional planning process Implementing such systems could open new environments for permanent and better settlement conditions as well as new opportunities for sustainable development.
Opportunities to live together in daily life, to mix with each other, to communicate and toexchange information are key factors that could promote people in communities or in the city in developing their collective identity. Thereafter this collective identity can potentiate people to possess their autonomy in public critical decisions. It can also create lively and energetic exchanges, which finally leads to healthy public life and strong community feelings.
Physical structures of free spaces and public buildings, location and the whole composition of the city, including patterns of diverse activities of citizen in each period of the day are major criteria for the judgment of quality and usefulness of urban public spaces.
This presentation will focus on observation frame and evaluation of urban public free space, followed by showing examples of various patterns of public free space in Thailand.
This presentation tries to point out the significance of the relationship betweencity establishment and social environment that plays a role in determining political excellence or a so called "Civil Society" in the Thai context.
Natural disasters such as Hurricane Katrina, the Indian Ocean tsunami, floods, landslides as well as manmade disasters for example the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States and the October 12, 2002 Indonesian Bali bombing often result in loss of property and lives. Proper disaster management before, during and after they have occurred is therefore of paramount importance to Government agencies as well as international organisations involved in disaster management.
An effective disaster management strategy/ cycle should comprise four main components: 1) preparedness 2) response 3) mitigation and 4) recovery. In order to prepare, respond, mitigate and/or carry out an effective recovery program after the disaster, information and awareness is essential. Over the recent years, GIS and remote sensing have become necessary tools for disaster management. Remote sensing assumes a number of functions in disaster management processes. First, satellites can detect some precursors of disasters for example floods, drought and earthquakes. As a result satellites play a role in disaster forecasting and early warning. Secondly, satellites can be of enormous benefit for monitoring the event as it occurs. Last but not least, satellites can be used to provide assessment of the effects of disaster after its occurrence. This information is necessary for the disaster recovery phase.
In recent years, flooding in Ho Chi Minh city has become more and more serious, it affects the lives of the citizens very much. There are some reasons which cause this situation, among them the rapid urbanization is the main one. In two last decades, Ho Chi Minh city became the biggest industrial, commercial, scientific, technological and tourist center of Vietnam, with numerous buildings mushrooming and a fast population increase, creating many residential areas. Many areas, that were water storages before, now are filled up with building constructions, some canals are blocked by houses or rubbish from the inhabitants, the drainage is too old and therefore always overloaded when the rain comes, the water cannot withdraw, floods occur.
Pasig River, the main waterway in Metro Manila, Philippines, isconsidered to be of historical, social, cultural and economic significance fordevelopment, not only of the national capital, but of the whole country aswell. It played an important role in the early industrialization and urbanization of the megacity, being the center of trade and transport evenbefore the Spaniards settled in the Philippines. With rapid industrialization, urbanization and growth of thecity after World War II, the river became a sink for indiscriminate discharge of untreated industrial and municipal solid waste and wastewater. The riverbanks attracted informal settlements and adjacent areas became blighted and depressed. In the 1990s the river was considered biologically dead.
The Pasig River Environmental Management and Rehabilitation Sector Development Program (PAREMAR) was implemented from 2000-2009 for cleaning up the river. The program included an integrated approach of policy reforms and investment projects. Theprogram sought to improve the water quality of Pasig River to Class C standard, establish 10-meter wide environmental preservation areas (EPAs) along theriverbanks, upgrade infrastructure, provide municipal services and facilitiesin urban regeneration areas adjacent to EPAs, provide sanitation services andcapacitate local governments and other agencies in environmental management.
Southern African savannas are under increasing threat of over-exploitation due to higher demands for fuelwood and charcoal by low income communities. In some electrified communities, the high cost of electricity has generally prevented a move away from dependency on bio-energy. In Mozambique, Tanzania and Zambia, charcoal from communal woodlands is exported to urban centres for sale to low-income urban dwellers. Intensive harvesting practices and demands for arable farming land are contributing to the continued decrease in the availability of plant species preferred for fuelwood and/or charcoal. The exploitation of traditional biomass systems for cash and/or mercantile purposes (charcoal and lumber) is also leading to accelerated losses of natural forests and biodiversity, as well as creating local scarcity of biomass. However, quantitative data on woody biomass preferred for fuelwood/charcoal and its spatial distribution is often lacking. Where such information exists, it is too site specific and difficult to extrapolate to macro levels for rural domestic energy planning purposes. High costs of both ground-based assessment methods and high resolution satellite images tend to contribute to this scarcity of convertible biomass data. Spaceborne radar remote sensing is offering exciting opportunities for estimating standing woody biomass volumes at landscape scales. However, not all known biomass stocks are accessible to rural communities due to long distances from households, land tenure regimes, geographic location of resource bases and/or transport infrastructure.
Development processes are of a complex nature and decisions taken during that process have far reaching consequences for the population and the environment.
The quality and quantity of information on which these decisions are based, is therefore of paramount importance. The Center for Development and Environment (CDE) of the Institute of Geography of the University of Bern is developing new approaches and instruments for the production of knowledge to support such decision making processes in Laos, Tanzania, and Pakistan. The research is illustrated using the example of Laos, a country that has recently opened up and is confronted with a dynamic development process.
There is a clear need, at all scales, to be able to access, integrate and use spatial data from disparate sources in guiding decision making. Our ability then, to make sound decisions collectively at the local, regional, and global levels, is dependent on the implementation of SDI that provides for compatibility across jurisdictions that promotes data access and use.
Only through common conventions and technical agreements will it be easily possible for local communities, nations and regional decision-makers to discover, acquire, exploit and share geographic information vital to the decision process. The use of common conventions and technical agreements also makes sound economic sense by limiting the cost involved in the integration of information from various sources, as well as eliminating the need for parallel and costly development of tools for discovering, exchanging and exploiting spatial data. The greater the limitation on available resources for SDI development, the greater is the incentive for achieving alignment between initiatives to build SDI.
This presentation of “Building Spatial Data Infrastructures” is intended as an introduction to the ongoing complex endeavours to establish SDI on national, regional and global levels. It shows some important considerations and mile stones in the development of the components of a Spatial Data Infrastructure.
The presentation provides a general overview about the use of Geographic Information System ArcMap 9.2, different types of Satellite Image in combination with GPS as tool to collect relevant data for sector planning and area based planning.
One main area of foreign investment in northern Laos are rubber plantations. Most of the investors are from China. Other areas of interest for foreign investment in northern Laos are hydro power. Laos as provider for hydro power to neighbour countries will playa significant role in the future. One huge Hydro Power Station with a capacity of 250 – 300 Mega watts is also planned in Meung District to use the potential of Nampha River. Apart from this the north also provides suitable areas to grow tea and to explore natural tea forest to harvest tea known as Puh Ert.
Satellite images together with GPS are used to identify potential areas for the socio-economic development in the province. It is also the right tool to monitor the planning process. All relevant collected data will be used to design thematic maps to visualize the planning process and to make the data always easily available as district and provincial data bank.
With all economic developments in the Province urban areas will also grow faster than expected. Therefore, the development of Master Plans is a very important task to guide future developments. Collected and analyzed data of differnet sectors are the baseline to develop and design regional planning concepts where strategic areas for foreign and domestic investments are highlighted.
I would like to talk about the situation of Land Use planning and management in my country, Lao PDR. Due to its geographic position Laos is the only landlocked South East Asian country. Laos has borders with China in the north, Myanmar in the northeast, Vietnam in the east, Thailand in the south-west, and Cambodia in the south. The country itself covers 236,800 square kilometers, including 1864 kilometers of the Mekong River. More than half of the land in Laos is mountainous and not arable. Laos has 47% forest cover, but with increasing population pressure that figure is diminishing.
During the last ten years the Lao government has been following a plan to promote sustainable management of its natural resource base and has implemented the policy of area-based development. Beside that, the government has the vision of resource allocation for upland development, maintenance and reduction of shift cultivation. It determines the types of areas that are appropriate for that, such as conservation forest, agriculture forest and water resource.
Therefore land management and land use planning are very important to development; moreover, in these planning and management processes support tools or methods such as topography mapping (flood map, forest map, watershed map, border map and ….etc) are needed, furthermore GIS equipment (navigation, computer and …etc) and data collections ( land type data, river data, forest data and …etc).
The fast growth of towns and cities, particularly in the developing countries, pressurizes the existing infrastructural capacity to meet the demands of a large number of people. The lack of adequate shelter, basic services, namely water and sanitation to sustain decent community livelihood is a major and critical issue that can be seen in most cities of the developing countries. In response to this matter, debate, policy, programme, and several approaches have been launched by national and international organizations. Despite of these attempts, it will not be effective without integrating the grassroot community organization/community based organization in the development process.
Industrial zones development and employment for the
people who lost their land in the process of industrial zones development in Hanoi's suburb areas
by Le Thu Hoa & Vu
Thi Hoai Thu
The dynamic development of urban areas with
diversity of spaces, places, lifestyles and preferences can cause some
consequences such as disparities, fragmentation, tensions and conflicts within
urban areas which needs a cohesion for a sustainable urban future. There have
not been a consistent concept on urban coherence, but it can be understood from
the theory of complex interacting systems which seeks ways to handle different
interests and conflicts in urban areas. Therefore, studies on urban coherence
can be approached from physical, spatial, economic, social, political or cultural
dimensions. This paper discuss the urban coherence from social-economic
dimention with an emphasis on employment for the people who lost their land in
the process of industrial zones
development in Hanoi's suburb areas.
The urban development processes are the intricate processes that have close-relationship with all aspects of social-economic such as land value, population density, socio-economic status, emigration. Hence, understanding of the developing cities and identification of urban management tasks are very important in urbanization process.
Along the history of spatial planning, researching urban development processes have some achievements especially, analyzing the spatial-functional structure of land in developed and developing countries based on urban models. Moreover, urban model could show the trend of development of the city, the relationship among land value - population density - socio economic status in the city, the spatial distribution of key characteristic of the urban population such as poverty, employment, housing and environment.
Twelve approaches of the shape of urban areas to ecology on the second or intermediate level - the metropolis were established by differential authors. The shape of urban areas divided into four categories: spatial (star, concentric zone, sector, and density gradient); natural (poly-nuclear and surface feature); social (process, sentiment, social area, and cluster analysis); economic (ecological distance and land economics).
This research deals with some urban models and formulates the urban models on Hanoi- the capital of Vietnam.
Cagayan de Oro is one of the fastest growing cities in the Philippines. It is the gateway to Northern Mindanao and the largest city in the region, and the second highest ranking urban settlement in the great island of Mindanao. In 2007, the estimated total population of the City was recorded at 558,272. The City has several characteristics making it attractive for people to invest in and live in. Cagayan de Oro has an outstanding peace-and-order condition, a typhoon-free climate, has proximity to other agricultural and industrial areas in the region, and has good residential settlements.
The idea to convert from a GOCCorp to a COCCoop came initially from two sources, namely: 1) The Water District Management, when it went public to present its problems threatening its operations, and 2) the citizens' concern that water, should be provided efficiently, cost-effectively and with utmost security. Sensing that indeed CDO COWD was threatened, the citizens promptly moved to COOPERATIVE-ize COWD as an alternative.
Being over 100 years old, the great majority of significant urban centers in Southeast Asia could comfortably be put under the category of hybrid modernized traditional cities. That is to say they have grown out of old townships, and developed into cities of a new breed, characterized by the symptoms of a developing society. In the pre-modern era the pace of change was gradual. But with the new modern eco-political conditions the urban centres have taken on different functions. The changes have been noticeably of leap-forward growth in the last ten decades or so. Contrary to their traditional specificities, these explosive changes have been increasingly shaped by the similar forces, i.e. the capitalist economy on the one hand and the centralized politics on the other. As a result the cities from different backgrounds have assumed a number of common attributes. Curiously they have become more alike, not in terms of their physical aspects, but of their underlying logic.
Principles and ideas of urban planning have changed during the last 20 years. Global competition and the world wide neoliberal model of economics have created new forms of urban governance, new forms of public private partnerships in urban development projects, new types of business improvement districts and so on. The coherence of urban environments results from complex interacting systems. In this process, the neoliberalising city runs the risk to loose its social and also functional and physical coherence. Gated communities for the rich and powerful on one hand and marginalized settlements on the other hand are the result. The proposed paper discusses different aspects of the growing privatization of urban functions and the problems of urban governance in areas of limited statehood.
Prof. Dr. Hans Gebhardt
Department of Geography
University of Heidelberg
Pasay city is the third smallest political area in the National Capital Region (NCR). It has a population of 408,000 - 41 percent of which are considered poor (based on the 2000 National Statistics Office survey) - and a population density of 2,553 persons/per sq. km. It is divided into 201 barangays (villages), one of the biggest in the NCR, 46 percent of which (92 barangays) are classified as depressed. About 18% of Manila's slum dwellers reside in this city.
Pasay city is considered as the transportation hub of the country. The country's main domestic and international airports are located here. The majority of buses have their terminals in this city. All modes of transportation (heavy rail, light rail, buses, jeepneys, etc.) to and from major NCR destinations can be found here. This accessibility of Pasay city also makes it the preferred place for rural migrants.
Unemployment and underemployment levels are high. Naturally, when income and savings are low, access to credit is limited. In most cases the only credits available to Pasay's poor residents, for emergency and other purposes, are those provided by informal and small time lenders.
Singapore as a city-state and Kuala Lumpur as the largest metropolis in Malaysia are both target destinations of Malays from their immediate surroundings or from neighbouring regions. In Singapore, pockets of Malay minority have been diluted by urban housing policies whilst in Kuala Lumpur, pockets of Malay concentration have been accentuated as more Malays move to the cities under the New Economic Policy. Whereas residential segregation in Kuala Lumpur has led to an increased social cohesion but a fragmented metropolis or less urban coherence; desegregation policies in Singapore have resulted in an increased social cohesion but more urban coherence. This paper examines the factors culminating in the paradox of these two cities.
Prof. Lee Boon Thong
Ms. Shariffa Bahyah Bte Syed Ahmad
Nilai University, Kuala Lumpur,
Modern Town Planning principles emerging from the industrial revolution have been the driving force behind physical development of cities.
These principles segregate land uses and activities in a rational manner to create urban coherence. The industrial revolution drove people from villages to factory towns. Congestion and the lack of amenity created urban blight and modern town planning emerged as a saviour to this. Complex spaces with multiple use were brokendown to easily comprehensible single use spaces. Similar land uses were clustered together as large congregates of spaces linked by superhighways.
Yet, behind its seemingly good intentions, have modern town planning principles failed to provide the answers in the search for utopia? To what extent have they and will they influence Southeast Asian cities? Southeast Asian cities are complex and this complexity is what gives it its character. This paper will look at the physical contrasts between old Kuala Lumpur and newly-planned administrative centre as a case study and highlight challenges in the search the Southeast Asian solution.
Mrs. Lee Mei Ming
Department of Architecture
University of Malaya
Town or City development planning in the Philippines, for many years, happened only on table. Communities are considered only as passive recipients of development programs. Thus, time and again, many development efforts that have been implemented failed not only because they are inefficient but because the program gained no support from the communities it was intended for. This paper presents the dynamics of how communities affected by "development" actively participates in selection of development program that would be implemented in their areas. Such is the case of the two rural barangay of Cagayan de Oro City - Barangay Bayanga and Barangay Mambuaya.
Bayanga is strategically located as the first rural barangay after urban barangay Lumbia, where Cagayan de Oro airport is located. Mambuaya sits next to Bayanga. Both barangays have been of great interest even in the international arena because of white water rafting, the Macahambus Cave and Gorge and recently, the discovery of the nearly extinct tarsier in one of the districts in Bayanga.
Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) has been recognized as a sub-field of environmental management for almost three decades. Theoretically in Indonesia, ICZM has been introduced formally since the late 1990s and has been developed by the Ministry of Marine Affairs in the beginning of the 2000s. However, policy, environment, and management are not well prepared and the rather new concept cannot yet be implemented widely for Indonesia. At the national level, the Ministry of Marine and Fisheries Affairs had developed a policy and regulation concerning the Coastal and Small Island Management No. 27 in 2007. The most common problems and issues of the coastal zone are environmental problems, social economic, policy, and hazard mitigation. Several coastal cities have no plans at all for the coastal region, effective management tools, necessary institutional preconditions, sustainable programs, integrated approaches, and outcomes of programs that have an effect for certain time periods.
This study identifies some cohesive and participation processes of the formal and informal inquiry strategies, which form of ICZM can be implemented and which lessons can be identified for the coastal cities. Coordination, cooperation and consultations (3 C) among the stakeholders on the decision making process and planning for their sustainable cities briefly focuses on the type of uncertainties and knowledge gaps between the theoretical concept of ICZM and the level of practice.
Global warming and climate change are one of the most talked and campaigned about issues of the 21st century. We know that it is an undeniable fact that the world poppulation is increasing in a larger ration. Many countries sucessfully implemented "Green Policies", to protect our environment and our future.
The City Government of Cagayan de oro, through the Local Environment and Natural Resources Office (CLENRO) is mandated to administer the development and protection of our natural resources. In carrying out the aforementioned mandate, we tried several strategies and one of which is to encourage participation and involvement of Government Agencies (GAs), Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), Private Sectorts in the URBAN GREENING PROJECT including the TREE GROWING.
Trees have great significant role in the global effort to abate Global Warming by acting as "carbon sinks". Through the process of photosynthessis, trees absorb carbon dioxide, converting it to sugar as food and gives off oxygen to the atmosphere. It also have aesthetic value as it beautifies the landscape and highways aside from its role as a deterrent to landslides. A mature tree sequesters 6 kilograms of carbon per year.
It is the policy of the city government thru CLENRO that requires industries/corporations to plant trees as one of the requirements prior to the granting of any permit/clearance or certification, which is being institutionalized by Executive Order No. 96-3003 signed by the City Mayor.
Vientiane is the capital city of Lao PDR. The development of the city has accelerated since the introduction and implementation of the Lao Government's Planning Strategy that commenced in 1986. Over the last ten years, Vientiane's urban environment has improved significantly with the investments of environmental infrastructure (drainage and waste water system, solid waste disposal); and urban infrastructure. Vientiane City has focused on a greening plan by investing in planting trees along the road and developing public parks. By the year 2010 Vientiane needs to be beautiful for the celebration of the 450th anniversary of capital, which moved from Luang Prabang. VTE city have declared six slogan words for Vientiane to encourage people namely: security, cleanliness, green, light, charming and civilization.
The Vientiane inner city is famous for its historical and cultural heritage, nice trees and rivers. However, the expansion and concentration in the city has drastically destroyed many famous landscapes and the environmental quality. Moreover, in the city outskirts, the landscape and environment is also destroyed by the chaotic and rapid development. At present, there is no important plan and regulation concerning the protection of these famous landscapes. Even though a certain regulation exists, its operation is properly done by the central government and the municipality of Vientiane. What is meant by this sentence?
"Urban coherence," as a multi-faceted urban phenomenon that caters for the improved long-term well-being and quality of life for an urban community, can be incorporated as goals to be aimed for in the process of urban planning. In the Malaysian context, urban and regional planning, or town and country planning, is a process that requires the formulation of a series of development plans, which function as a comprehensive and integrated framework for urban development and growth at the national, state and local levels. Although the plans are mainly physical in nature, containing proposals for the future development and use of land, they have to take into account economic and social issues, and provide for economic, social, cultural and political stability and well-being as their objectives and strategies. At the national level, the Town and Country Planning Act of the country requires the preparation of a National Physical Plan, which is a written statement formulating strategic policies for the purpose of determining the general directions and trends of the physical development in the country. The Structure Plan of each state formulates the policy and general proposals of the state government in respect of the development and use of land in the state, in line with the national physical plan, including measures for the improvement of the socio-economic well-being of the people and the promotion of economic growth of the state.
- Integrated planning as a basis for spatial coherence
- Participatory planning as a basis for social cohesion
- Planning for marginalized communities as a basis for social inclusion
Public Policy on Urban Heritage Conservation
The Case of Solo City, Indonesia
The rapid physical development in the cities has put great pressures to the historic monuments and urban areas. It has caused deterioration, or even, loss of historic fabric. Many historic buildings had to give way to the development. The challenge that has to be resolved at present is how to promote urban heritage conservation as an important principle in the progress toward sustainable development.
The changing political climate in Cambodia, the transitional role of the state and the Constitution 1993 opened the doors for an emerging civil society. The NGOs are working towards sustainable and equitable development in Cambodia and consider the development of human resources fundamental to long-term socio-economic development. Other themes of priority are alleviation of poverty and respect for the rule of law. Many of these NGOs are working in rural areas on community development, micro-credit, agriculture, environmental protection, and other aspects of the country's physical infrastructure, usually in cooperation with a foreign NGO, community activists or sponsors and some collaboration as part of an official Cambodian government ministry. Their work addresses the infrastructure underpinning essential for the reconstruction of Cambodian society. But, nevertheless, not many NGOs are working in urban areas due to the donor requirements and the environmental work context.
In the beginning of the third millennium, most cities, notably in the Third World, are facing the tendency of expansive growth that is called urban sprawl. As a middle city, Yogyakarta also has problems with this situation. The problems do not exist only in terms of physical aspects, but also concerning social and societal perspectives. The aim of this paper is to elaborate the role of the "Kampong Tourism Program" to prevent an uncontrolled urban sprawl process of Yogyakarta City. This paper is based on the "Assistance Program for the Kampong Tourism Development of Trisik Asri".
Uncontrolled urban sprawl in Yogyakarta City betrays the weakness of the City Government to maintain spatial planning to the degree that is expected along "sustainable city paradigms". Consequently, some initiatives arise in order to revise this situation. The peri-urban community takes over these important functions and competences through social and societal action. The Kampong Tourism Program is one of the efforts to combat the uncontrolled urban sprawl process.
Our planet is now in the process of globalization. Every element of the society should adjust itself to fit with the world system. Without adjustment, it will fail to sustain its life. Farmers in Peri-Urban (PU) area of Yogyakarta as an element of bigger society of Yogyakarta Special Region should do the same thing, adjust itself to become an integral part of the world system. PU locations tend to undergo, over a given period of time, dramatic changes like increase in land prices, there is an influx of people both from rural and urban areas, population density increase, multiple land-uses emerge and construction spreads. Such changes effect the original agricultural production systems, which tend to become of even smaller scale with more intensive production and a shift from staple crops towards more perishable crops and animal production to serve a growing urban market (meat, eggs, milk).
The principle of reducing waste, reusing and recycling resources and products is often called the "3Rs." Reducing means choosing to use things with care to reduce the amount of waste generated. Reusing involves the repeated use of items or parts of items which still have usable aspects. Recycling means the use of waste itself as resources. Waste minimization can be achieved in an efficient way by focusing primarily on the first of the 3Rs, "reduce," followed by "reuse" and then "recycle."
In Vietnam, urban areas contain only 24 percent of the population of the country, but produce about 50 percent of the country's municipal waste. This is due to more affluent lifestyles, a larger quantity of commercial activities, and more intense industrialization in urban areas.
The paper has three main parts.
The first part deals with a "Sustainable Development" model that suggests an ultimate aim of "human development now and through future generations." Its essence is "the harmonious integration of a sound and viable economy, responsible governance, social cohesion/harmony and ecological integrity to ensure that development is a life-long process." Its key actors are the Government, Business and Civil Society - interdependent partners, each one playing a crucial role to contribute to achieve the ultimate aim of sustainable development of society.
Civil Society is the key actor in the realm of culture, ("to develop the people's social/spiritual capacity to advance knowledge, achieve clarity and coherence of values and to advocate the people's interests"). The Government plays a role in the realm of polity ("to establish/practice a ‘rule of law' based on participatory/democratic principles to secure people's human rights including justice and equity"). The Business sector is the main actor in the realm of the economy ("to generate production, wealth and the distribution of goods/services to meet the people's material needs").
This study deals with the level of citizen involvement in tourism development planning process in Srisakes province, one of top major cultural tourism destinations in northeast region of Thailand. The result indicates the low level of participation in tourism policy formation. The participation mostly is limited to local government and related business. Moreover, the government perception on citizen participation is quite contrary to that of the community. While the government actions aim to allow more involvement of local people in cultural events and other kinds of tourism activities (e.g., local guide, cultural performers, etc.), citizen involvement in planning process is limited to the role of informants and resources providers. Their involvement mostly occurs at the initial stage of identifying problems and being consulted but less in formation of tourism development plan and sharing the decision-making.
Keywords: community participation, citizen involvement, tourism development
Assisitant Professor in Urban and Regional Planning Program,
Faculty of Architecture, King Mongkut's Institute of Technolocy Ladkrabang (KMITL)
Graduate student in Urban and Environmental Planning Program,
Faculty of Architecture, King Mongkut's Institute of Technolocy Ladkrabang (KMITL)
The CARE-SEED Program or Change-Agent in Research and Extension - Socio-Economic and Environmental Development is a participatory urban poor upgrading approach that involves the different colleges and non-teaching staff of the Capitol University in their efforts to uplift adopted urban barangay [barangay is the smallest unit of governance in the Philippines. A town or a municipality or even a city is composed of several barangay]. This approach is an offshoot of the extension program experience at barangay Dayawan in the Municipality of Villanueva from 1996-2003. Since then, this locally funded program has improved and moved to urban poor areas around Capitol University in Cagayan de Oro City to serve as the social responsibility component of the university.
Social land concessions could be used in several situations in which there is a social need for land and the land use management for special purposes, such as residential land shortages, landlessness, requirements for resettlement, distribution of de-mined land, and development of housing and subsistence plots for workers of large plantations.
Other situations in which there is a social purpose for land distribution include the provision of land to victims of natural disasters, and provision of land for demobilized soldiers and for families of soldiers who were disabled or who died in the line of duty. Social land concession could be used in broader socio-economic development programs such as for social housing, resettlement, community development, restoring situations after natural disasters, and new land development.
A social land concession is only one mechanism out of several through which the state can transfer land from the state's private domain for productive use. This mechanism is very important because it is the only mechanism that is specifically defined as having a social purpose. Therefore, it has a leading role in contributing to the goal of poverty reduction.
The first priority for using the social land concessions mechanism for poverty reduction is to establish functional and transparent procedures that can be applied in different locations and contexts. These procedures form one element of the overall framework for the management and allocation of state land.
The vision of development aimed to be achieved in the Special District of Yogyakarta Province in the upcoming 25 years is to become a city of education, culture and the foremost tourism destination of South East Asia in the environment of an advanced, autonomous and affluent society. The definition of advanced society is a society which is economically prosperous, supported by a high degree of knowledge, wisdom, and health; having a stable political and judicial system and setting; having its rights, safety and reassurance guaranteed; and participating in the development of every sectors, supported by good and comprehensive infrastructures. An autonomous society is a society which is capable of realizing an equal and fair living compared to other advanced societies and nations by relying on self capability and strength. The autonomy of a society is reflected in the provision of qualified human resources that are able to meet the needs and progress of development. An affluent society is a society whose needs, both spiritual and material, are fulfilled properly in accordance to its role in life.
The overarching development goal of the Government of Lao PDR is to quit least developed countries status by the year 2020 (MPI, 2006). Increased access to adequate urban environmental sanitation services (UESS) is recognised as an important element of socio-economic development, and is highlighted as a priority intervention in the government's Sixth Five-year Socioeconomic Plan 2006-2010 (SFSP). The Prime Ministerial Decree 14 (2000) provides for a decentralised planning system, delegating planning and implementation responsibilities to the district and village level, respectively, and promoting community participation in the development process. However, a number of factors hamper the effective implementation of the decentralisation policy, including the lack of supportive planning guidance. In practice, participatory planning has usually not been successfully applied in sub-district planning. Household-Centered Environmental Sanitation Planning Approach (HCES) is seen as a promising tool by national and provincial authorities to overcome some of the hindering factors.
Khon Kaen city is located in the central northeast of Thailand. In 1962, Khon Kaen was set up as the developing center in the northeastern region of the country. This limited the immigration of people within the city, which experienced a rapid growth of the urban area during the last few decades. In 1971, Khon Kaen Municipality enlarged the area to 46 square kilometers, which covered only 4 square kilometers in 1935. At present, a population of 128,687 people lives in Khon Kaen Municipality with 63 communities. Khon Kaen Municipality has initiated participation with each community as a tool for decentralization and transparency management. The aims of this paper are to review the development of civil societies and activities of social groups in Khon Kaen Municipality.
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sekson Yongvanit
Department of Geography,
Khon Kaen University
An Analysis based on a Good Governance and Decentralisation Survey
Civil society in the sense of urban development has become an increasingly important feature in Indonesian economic development today. The reason for this is simply because of the increasing number of the under-employment and the poor people caused by the long economic crises that has struck Indonesian life. Indonesia has implemented the concept of good governance and decentralization in the sense of achieving a better civil society just after the long financial and political crises.
Case studies in Hang Buom street in the Ancient Quarter
The Ancient Quarter (AQ) is one of the oldest areas in Hanoi. It was designated as National Historical Heritage in 2004. Having nearly one thousand of historical years, the AQ's formation and development is closely related to the evolution of Hanoi city.
Besides the role as a historical area, the AQ is one the most thriving commercial and business districts of the city where various types of commodities and services, both wholesale and retail, can be found. It is also a well-known tourism district. On the other hand, the AQ is now facing critical problems: degradation of the living environment. Problems have originated from contemporary contradictions: poor physical environment vs. vital social environment, poor infrastructure versus thriving economic activities, poor living environment vs. wealthy material conditions of local residents, over-crowded population vs. limited spaces, and tourism development vs. preservation of the district. Therefore, sustainable development of the area has long been a big challenge to Hanoi city, its Government, its citizens and professional society - both domestic and international.
This study has adopted an integrated, comprehensive and participatory approach to propose a model of role sharing between community and local authority in dealing with living condition issues and revitalizing the intangible values of the area.
From early times to the present, food has played a central role in the urban community. Food that we eat may tell our identity, ethnicity, social class, and our state of health. In Yogyakarta, however, there are available unique places that quite potentially provide food for both the rich and the poor, the educted, the less educated, the young and the old. Students, becak drivers, taxi drives, and others spending time for eating and more importantly discussing their daily life with each other.
The rapid pace of urbanisation in Southeast Asia often gobbles up informal urban fringe villages in merciless manners. Where state land is involved, the local inhabitants are resettled in low cost homes located in distant parts of the city. Where informal settlements are found on private land, the villagers are often left to fend for themselves in relocation sometimes without any compensation. This paper examines a third kind of fringe settlement that has suffered from the onslaught of urban growth - indigenous people groups. In exchange for the community-owned land at the outskirt of Kuala Lumpur, a private developer has built basic bungalows and apartments forthe indigenous people within its development complex. This resettlement project is thus enveloped by a huge swath of a transformed landscape comprising middle to upper class residential units, ultra-modern shopping centres and office complexes. A local development and security committee was formed to bridge the steep chasm between the modern globalised circuit and the ‘backward' community, hoping that assimilation of urban values through proximity would transform the local inhabitants. The local neighbourhood organisations, as a form of civil society action groups, are often successful in protecting their own rights and interests, this paper intends to show the utter haplessness and hopelessness of the local civil interest group in a ‘tragedy of a lost community'.
This paper evaluates how participation and social mobilization of housewives group (DasaWisma) has improved urban health problem and malnutrition in Indonesia. Occurrence of public health problem such as dengue haemorraghic fever and children malnutrition in urban area is relatively high in Indonesia. This phenomenon has encouraged people to adopt different approaches for its prevention ranging from a vertical, government-controlled program to a more horizontal, community-based program. Dasa Wisma is social community group consisting of housewives from10-20 families. This group plays an important role in the implementation of family empowerment and welfare program at household level in Indonesia. Some of itsactivities are: (1) collecting data of malnourished children in the neighborhood area; (2) counseling about family health and nutrition as well as household sanitation; (3) participating in epidemic and poverty reduction program; and (4) managing POSYANDU (Center of Family Health Care). In POSYANDU, Dasa Wisma helps in children weighing, health counseling and distribution of nutritious food for children. Dasa Wisma also helps in the socialization of government health program through its regular monthly meeting and provides health such as the number of pregnant women, children under 5 year old, mortality of mother after birth, etc. Data of malnourished children are used as reference by government to undertake a follow up action to treat them in Puskesmas (Community Health Center).
The New Millennium has ushered in new hopes andinspiration. First, there appears to be a re-awakening and renewed idealism and vision shared by poor and rich countries - "a world without poverty". The UN has produced the "Millennium Declaration" (signed by 189 countries in September 2000, re-confirmed in 2002) calling for reduction by half the proportion of people living in extreme poverty and hunger by Year 2015. The other is the inspiration that the "ABCD" paradigm has brought into our way - a new millennium, a new paradigm, and a more positive outlook of our world that is searching for lasting peace and development.
The present global economic crisis and the country's external debt servicing are reflected on the minimal budget given to Education and Health Departments - two important offices that caters to two major needs of both urban and rural populations. According to the estimate of the Freedom from Debt Coalition, the health and education budgets amount to merely 6.57% and 30.06% of what the government is securing for debt service. The response of many Filipinos is to migrate to wealthier countries to augment their income and to sustain the basic needs of their dependents. Those who have no chance to migrate are left behind to face the consequences of the country's economic situation.
Manokwari is a coastal city and regency in the province of West Papua. Since 2003 it has been the capital of the province. The development of Manokwari has rapidly improved since the policy in Indonesia are emphasizing more on the Eastern Part of the country. The Indonesian government regulation no. 26 in 2008 had put Manokwari as a Center of Regional Activities (PKW= Pusat Kegiatan Wilayah), which is important for the Province of Papua Barat as industrial activities, exportand imports, services, transportation mode for assessing other area, and as a prime economic movers in the province. The population growth and migration has rapidly increased in Manokwari, which is, moreover located on the coastal area. It is at the same time sprawling across the coastal environment, destroying resources, and threatening the coastal waters with domestic and industrial waste.
Vientiane City is the capital city of Laos since 1560. Since then, the city was transformed from a very small and quiet town center to a more sophisticated capital city as it is preparing to celebrate its 450th year anniversary in2010. The first master plan of Vientiane City had the first Master was preparedby a French consultant in 1962. At the beginning, the city was growing accordingly to the plan. However, because of the rapid growth of development as well as the expansion of civil society such as residential, commercial, religion, business and education, the city slowly became disorderly. As a result, substandard of infrastructure, a mixture of architectural styles and high density in city center started to emerge and accumulate.
The changing political climate in Cambodia, the transitional role of the state and the Constitution 1993 opened the doors for an emerging civil society - non-governmental organizations (NGO).NGOs are working to help the government in different aspects and sectors in thecountry in order to improve the living conditions and rule of law.
Cambodia is in the early stagesof development and urbanization. The total population is around 14.83 millions of which 2.93 million (20 percent) are living in urban areas. Approximately, 1.17 million (40 percent) is concentrated in Phnom Penh, the capital city. The rest is distributed thinly over the 23 provinces and municipalities. The urban population is projected to increase at the relatively high rate of 3.5 percent per annum reaching 8 millions (35 percent of the total population) by 2030 with Phnom Penh continuing to gain at the expense of other cities.
As a result of the high rate of urban growth, cities are expanding before the required infrastructure and services can be put in place. Consequently, the number of squatter settlements is increasing, and over half of the urban population is estimated to be living without access to adequate housing, water and sanitation.
In the last few years, land conflict is one of the main hot spots both in rural and urban areas. The urban land conflict mostly happened due to the need of land for public use and real estate development by private sector where hundred of families, especially informal settlement, are victims of the processes.
An Assessment of Community's Role in Urban Planning And Management intheTransitional Economy of Vietnam - Challenges and Opportunities for EnhancingCommunity Participation: Case studies: Community involvement in the new urban development project of Red Riverside City in Hanoi and urban upgrading project for poor people resettlement in Ho Chi Minh City.
The transition toward the open market economy in Vietnam since "Doi Moi" in 1986 has triggered a significant economic and social transformations. Such changes have not spared the construction area and brought many challenges to the urban planning field too. On one hand, the increasing diversity of players in the market economy with greater roles exercised by the private sector and the community has put more demand on the urban planning system and development control management decision-making process to be more open to community and encourage civil society participation. On the other hand, the urban planning in Vietnam have to deal with an increasingly complex set of challenges arising from the quick pace of urbanization and its natural consequences including urban sprawl, conflicts of economic benefits among different stakeholders, the imbalances between community visions and the demand of rapid urban development.
Urban coherence is a desired goalfor urban growth and development. It can only be achieved when all the needs of an individual, family and community are fulfilled. Most of these needs; food, shelter, personal services, can be provided by the market. However this fulfillment becomes complex when society becomes more urbanized. At places where the market cannot be relied upon for the fulfillment of these needs, the government intervenes, with the provision of law and order, education, health and welfare services, infrastructure and environmental protection, in order to manage the market so that it remains fair, competitive and sustainable.
As society grows in size and awareness, resources get stretched and the market becomes more competitive.Therefore, Good administration and governance are necessary to satisfy the community's growing needs, securehuman rights, ensure fair and equal distribution of wealth and resources, make the power system transparent and accountable, grant freedom of information, equal right to be heard, equal access to personal connections, and a provide a liberal political environment. When the government fails, civil society fills the gap, particularly where there is a sufficiently large middle class that is professionally capable and motivated to do so.
After the regional autonomy period in Indonesia, the management of urban heritage does not depend merely on the legislation and policy at national level any longer but also on decision-making at local level. This legal basis has empowered the local authority to have more power and legitimacy to plan and manage the urban heritage of the city.
Urban conservation policy in Surakarta demonstrates how the mayor as the local authority leader has an indispensable role. He has the vision that the development of Solo as a city should be returned to its cultural roots and originated towards the strengthening of its cultural identity, which is reflected by the city's slogan: ‘Solo's future is Solo's past'. He has a strong commitment to conserve urban heritage through rehabilitation of several historic urban spaces. In conducting these measures, his efforts have been favored by his sensitivity for local culture and cultural issues. Solo's urban conservation policy has become a great success, while also the relocation of street vendors that were occupying the historic areas happened without any considerable conflicts.
A geography of heritage: power, culture and economy
Graham, B. , Ashworth, G.J. u. J. E. Turnbridge (2000)
The central aim of this book is to trace and explain the relationships
between heritage and geography. The first is an idea that is being
increasingly loaded with so many different connotations as to be in
danger of losing all meaning;the second is a discipline, which, while
noted for its wide-ranging and eclec- tic interests and absence of
agreed content, maintains some form of common focus around its interest
in space and place.Our first task in a book which contains both terms
so prominently in the title, is to state what we mean and thus to
establish some delimitation of the phenomenon and of our particular
approach to it.
Heritage itself has a sustainability concept where our common responsibility to the future generations in the time of globalization is to develop the local identity through interactive coordination's heritage (Mimura, 2003). The sense of continuity of urban heritage becomes more important than ever. Urban heritage is not just about the past. It is a duty for everyone in this century to maintain and pass along to future generations. In the same time it is a right to create, develop and contemplate the future heritage as well as managing urban heritage as a creative industry. In this regard, the sensitivity, taste, and creation of urban manager on heritage is definitely crucial.
Conservation of heritage city is not only focussed on the preservation of historic fabrics or beautification of monuments.
It offers also a more holistic approach such as interpretation of various types of nature and cultural heritages - tangible and intangible, community participation program, economic analyses and forecasting, and attracting business and social-culture activities. The goal instead of conserving the historic value is providing a better quality of life.
However, the recognition of urban heritage conservation taking place in different parts of Indonesia is still very diverse. Some are more advanced in conserving urban heritageand increasing the public awareness, but many are still struggling to start conservation steps. Meanwhile, everydayurban heritage is destroyed due to the sake of development, commercialization or it is just neglected.
From Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) to Participatory Urban Appraisal (PUA)
From PRA to PLA and Pluralism: Practice and Theory
Robert Chambers (2007)
PRA (participatory rural appraisal) and the more inclusive PLA (participatory learning and action) are families of participatory methodologies which have evolved as behaviours and attitudes, methods, and practices of sharing. During the 1990s and 2000s PRA/PLA has spread and been applied in most countries in the world.
How to manage an old and living city with the twin objectives of the preservation of the past on the one hand and that of the function of the present on the other is a central challenge to the problems of cultural heritage management. ‘Chiang Mai Iam Project'
: literally ‘sparkling') is an attempt to answer the question. It has a multifold addresses, namely, (a) the sense of belonging to the city; (b) the involvement of the existing agencies with unclear mandates ambiguously related to new responsibilities; (c) the cultivation of innovative ideas among the education institution; (d) the sustainability of the avant-garde
project directlyawareness of is to in order to a Traditional City.
Dr. Chaiyan Rajagool
Faculty of Culture and Peace
Institute of Religion
Chiang Mai University, Thailand
In the last two decades, interest in urban heritage conservation has been growing in several cities of Indonesia. Central and local governments have undertaken ambitious programs for preservation and conservation of their heritage assets. However, after the earthquake shocked Yogykarta and some areas of Central Java in 2006, some cities have suffered technical and financial difficulties to realize urban heritage programs.
This paper is particularly dealing with practice innovations for urban preservation and conservation in risk cities. The study areas are Yogykarta (risk of earthquake exposed city), Solo (risk of flooding exposed city), Semarang (risk of inundation exposed city), and some inter urban regions (i.e. Ambarawa, Salatiga and Klaten).
Starting with the identification of urban heritage sites of each study area, rapid urban assessment and lessons learnt with the actors are conducted in order to understand the level of responsibilities for the government, proponents and members of a community. The appraisals are focused on social factors (i.e. city's image and identity), integration into day-to-day living and development of value systems for the community, the role of heritage in tourism and local economy, and its archeological and historical importance.
Preservation of Hanoi old town architecture has not been successful over the past decades. The continuing control of development and strict planning schemes deterred the changing process, but failed to preserve building forms and architectural values. As lifestyle and street/urban form remained, some may wish to preserve the spirit of the old town by administrative measures. However, this could not become true if citizens would not feel any ownership of the place. Property rights approach may provide further view on this issue.
Dr. Hieu, Nguyen Ngoc
Urban management and Rural Development Division
Academy of Public Administration, Hanoi, Vietnam
Heritage tourism is one of various sustainable tourism activities in heritage sites where tourists can learn and get involved in local culture and tradition. Heritage tourism can be the uniqueness of nature, culture or the combination of both in the unity of time and place. The difference that distinguishes heritage tourism from ordinary nature-based or culture-based tourism is that heritage tourism objects are qualified as heritage sites according to the definition published in Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972). Heritage tourism objects have extraordinary uniqueness and can be defined as masterpieces made by human or nature.
Tourism is regarded as one locomotive to stimulate local economy and to create job opportunities for the community. Tourism in frontier regions such as Flores Island should be based on community and be developed in a sustainable way. Sustainable tourism consists of the triple bottom lines i.e. empowering the community, strengthening local economy as well as conserving nature and cultural heritages.
A lot of effort is spent on the application of heritage city status by the interested cities. Other than the recognition and preservation of culture and environment, a city interest is mainly that the inscription will bring economic returns and will be one of the main drivers of economic growth. The main expectation usually centred on increased tourism and its many spin-offs. However, does the designation of being a world heritage city only accord such a limited economic benefit? Studies from other countries have shown that properties in a heritage designated area have a higher value than properties outside the heritage area. Appreciating property value not only increases the personal asset wealth but also the city's wealth as a whole. The paper discusses this interesting trend and attempts to determine if the same is true for the world heritage city of George Town. In order to study the value of heritage properties, a measuring tool is needed and the hedonic regression method was found to be suitable as the attributes of heritage property can be taken apart and the effect of each attribute on the value of the property can be regressed from the calculation. Data used are actual transaction data from the Valuation Department.
The City of George Town in Penang, Malaysia, with a history of urban growth of more than 200 years, grew as a British trading port with traders and settlers coming from Europe and other parts of Asia, bringing with them their religious and cultural beliefs and practices. With its potpourri of cultural and architectural styles, George Town is a quite unique city in the world. This has qualified George Town, together with Malacca, to be included in UNESCO's World Cultural Heritage List on 7 July 2008, as "the most complete surviving historic city centre on the Straits of Malacca, with a multi-cultural living heritage originating from the trade routes from Great Britain and Europe through the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent and the Malay Archipelago to China.
Traditional food is one of the cultural assets that is closely related to and plays an important role in the conservation of urban heritage. Tempe, for instance, is a traditional food that has been recognized as the nation's cultural heritage. Conservation of urban heritage has multiple values such as cultural, aesthetic, educational, environmental, social, historical, and economic value. Revitalization of traditional food provides economic benefit for the city and neighborhoods. It is also encouraging the preservation of unrecognized urban heritage. However, the revitalization of traditional foods in the era of globalization is not without challenges. Consumption habit in a global era, tend to be more and more practical, fast, convenient, functional and healthy especially for those who live in urban areas. In attempt to preserve this cultural asset, Center for Food and Nutrition Studies through its division (Center for Traditional Food Studies) in Gadjah Mada University has developed a system for traditional food mapping model as part of urban heritage conservation and development. The system linked traditional food with cultural, social, and historical, as well as science and technological aspects. Several books on urban food heritage have been published in collaboration with the local governments all over Indonesia such as Yogyakarta, Banten, Central and East Java. Mapping of local traditional foods has also created innovative strategies for community involvement, partnership building, financial support, product development and promotion.
The concept of "authenticity" in cultural heritage and mechanism for its assessment, preservation, and management is a core issue of international conservation policy documents.
The Nara Document used by the 2008 Operational Guidelines for Implementation of the World Heritage Convention lists 14 criteria as sources to be examined to established authenticity. These criteria namely are form and design, material and substance, use and function, traditions and techniques, location and setting, spirit and feeling, and other internal and external factors. 10 of these 14 criteria relate to the physical and material values of the site. Thus it can be argued that our cultural heritage is evident in the physical manifestation of our buildings and that the demolition of significant buildings will erode our heritage.
The protection of heritage is primarily accorded to properties that have been acknowledge or designated as having "heritage value" through a system of listing and gazettal. Inventory is a prelude to facilitate the process of listing and gazettal and is as such a key component in heritage management as without knowledge of the existing building stock, heritage managers are unable to effectively plan and prioritize what needs to be conserved, repaired or maintained.
The historic Cagayan de Oro City Hall will be built on top of garbage. Five years ago SANGGA KAGAY-ANON, together with Heritage Conservation Advocates (HCA), filed a lawsuit (Case no.2005-041) against the City Government for the nullification of Ordinance no.9508-2005 or the transfer of the historic city hall to the landfill. The contested Cagayan de Oro City Hall was the site of Casa Real, the seat of the three colonial governments which was demolished between 1910 and 1930 to give way for a new town hall. The new town hall was given equal significance by President Manuel L. Quezon when he attended its reopening. The swift act of the civil society stopped the planned transfer to Upper Dugong, Carmen.
The City Hall was not the first. In the not so resent past, the historic cemetery of Philippine Independent Church (PIC) located along Hayes Street (beside Xavier University) became the relocation site of the Hall of Justice and City Health Offices without much opposition. In fact the whole area is the new site for all other government offices in the city. Adjacent to this cemetery are the four parks along Tirso Neri and R. N. Abejuela Streets which, after undergoing upgrading in 2004, was re-named as Golden Friendship Park. On weekends it become a swap meet with singing bands to attract customers and also for the customers to stay longer in the parks (EO no. 85-2003).
Hanoi is one of the ancient capital cities in Asia with different historic urban landscapes. Besides its significant Old Quarter with a 1000 year history, it possesses a remained colonial quarter, often called Hanoi's French Colonial Quarter (HFCQ), which was built by and for the French colony. The area was gradually developed during the late 19th century and early 20th century, stretching out Southern area of Hoan Kiem Lake, Ba Dinh District and the Northern area of the Old Quarter. The street system was designed in a typical Euro-centric checkerboard pattern. Some streets were designed in boulevard style with big trees and beautiful villas lined up along the streets.
Along with the regional drastic economical growth and urbanization, Hanoi has transformed swiftly and often uncontrollably since the shift of Vietnam to Market Economy in 1986, and been caught between desirable economic growth and the need for sustainable new development plus cultural property conservation. Day by day, many invaluable old buildings have been "invaded", occupied and modified for commercial needs throughout the two quarters. Compared to the Old Quarter, HFCQ has remained its original architectural landscape in a better way. Yet as a matter of fact, along with the enhancement of commercialization and modernization in the metropolis, HFCQ has transformed severely within recent years, particularly in the building façades which substantially shape the historic urban fabrics.
Khon Kaen City was established around the year 1879, after, there were six times of community movings in order to be suitable for the context of environment but all of the movements were within the present municipal boundary. According to Thai belief, to build up a town or city, it is essential to set up a city pillar shrine, which is normally made from sand stone of three-meter height with 50- centimeter diameter with octagonal shape. This stone city pillar could be traced back 1000 years and has been used to be the indicator of monk's residence. Khon Kaen city pillar is standing in a shrine and was renovated 3 times. The last time was in 2001 when Khon Kaen City had a plan to develop the area nearby the city pillar shrine starting from the city gate and its surrounding public park. Brain storming and public hearing were introduced to the process of development. It could be finalized in 2005. The new construction has then begun but a large sum of budget was needed, so that a charity donation had to be collected for a period of time. The project was completely finished in 2007. Beside the city pillar shrine, Khon Kaen City has seven other shrines and two Chinese shrines, including the statues of Mae Kuan Im and the founder of Khon Kaen City. This presentation will discuss in detail each cultural heritage and the management to maintain it.
Prof. Dr. Sekson Yongvanit
Department of Geography
Khon Kaen University, Thailand
The rapid growth of towns and cities, resulted from economic development, the more demands of infrastructures, services land housing. However these consequences contributed to threatening the old traditional buildings in several aspects. For instance many of these have been demolished, where others have changed its original style. To cope with this there requires a commitment, political will, and knowledge know-how of each sector plays so that the portrait our past memories can effectively be preserved for the benefit of our future generation. The paper, however explore some concept and practical experiences contributed to promote and maintain those building heritages.
Keyword: Urban heritage, conservation, intervention, threatening new development, business centre, architectural ornamentation, villa...
Lecturer at the Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism
Royal University of Fine Arts
Battambang City is the one of the oldest cities of Cambodia. It has been inherited a rich urban heritage with a great variety of fine historic architecture from different historic periods, representing the diverse phases of the city's development. The city center is characterized by a coherent ensemble of about 800 heritage buildings from the French protectorate and Sungkum Reastr Niyum (period of the country's independence, 1953-1970).
Outside of this area, outstanding heritage buildings including new Khmer architecture, French -classical style villas and Khmer traditional wooden houses can be found. Throughout the city beautiful Wats represent the city's religious heritage. All these historic buildings and ensembles contribute to the city's unique character and beauty.
Since 2000, with the economic boom, the rapid uncontrolled development in Battambang city has led to the loss of valuable heritage buildings and its unique character. Traditional shophouses are gradually disappearing and being replaced by monstrosities and inappropriate new constructions disrespecting the urban context and with no sense of history.
This paper presents the beginning of a cooperative, an organization of consumers in Cagayan de Oro, to own and control the City's water distribution system legally and corporately known as the Cagayan de Oro Water District (COWD). Since 1973, the COWD has been a government-owned-controlled-corporation (GOCC) of the City Government by virtue of Presidential Decree 198-1973 (all water districts should be owned by local Government units). Civil society in Cagayan de Oro has studied and presented an alternative -- to convert the GOCC-COWD into a genuine COOPERATIVE (Consumers-Owned and Controlled).
This presentation is about the controversy on the how and why of conservation of the Alberto House in Biñan, Laguna, Philippines, the 200-year old ancestral home of the mother of the Philippines's national hero, Dr. Jose P. Rizal. The government, both at the national and local levels, as well as civil society and the media, have exerted efforts to prevent the sale and dismantling of the structure and its transfer to another location by a heritage resort developer. The interest of the owner in the house as private property vis-à-vis the national interest of heritage conservation is examined within what clarity and adequacy a new legal framework can offer: the recently enacted National Cultural Heritage Act of 2009 (Republic Act 10066). Some conclusions and recommendations are offered.
Ms. Imelda Baleta
Asian Development Bank, Manila
Here you find the "One Page Country Paper" wich the country groups created on the Expert Seminar in Lao 2010
As a city that has aged nearly 250 years, Surakarta ( often called Solo) has many areas with historic old buildings. Solo is one of the first cities in Indonesia built based on the concept of modern urban planning. Kasunanan Palace built adjacent to the Bengawan Solo River has always been exposed to the risk of flooding. Thus, a dike which nowadays is still visible was built extending from the southern region of Jurug to Solo Baru area.
Boulevard that extends t from northwest towards the front of the palace square (now Jalan Slamet Riyadi) was designed to direct the view towards Mount Merbabu. There is also a group of housing for migrant citizens. Pasar Gede (Gedhe Hardjonagoro Market ) and Pasar Balong (Balong Market) regions are the settlement areas for the Chinese, while the residential areas of Arabs (mostly from Hadramaut) are located in the region of Pasar Kliwon (Kliwon Market).
This topic is an analysis of how livelihoods of Luang Prabang people have changed, focusing on changes related to policies of cultural heritage conservation and tourism.
First, following the conservation and tourism policies, many infrastructural development projects, funded by the Lao government and international organizations, were subsequently launched. Luang Prabang people had access to building materials and technical assistance to conserve their heritage buildings.
They could also earn income from jobs either in conservation projects or in tourist related activities. Business people from other parts of Lao PDR and from abroad invested and provided technical assistance to local people. With influx of cash flow, business people and tourists, demand for food caused prices to escalate to levels that local people could not afford. Increasing demand for land prompted some local residents to migrate out of the city. In addition, garbage and water pollution led to environmental degradation in the city.
(Excerpt of Newsletter No. 9, January 2009)
This paper deals with the idea, and the citizens move, to convert the Cagayan de Oro City Water District (CDO COWD), a Government-Owned-Controlled-Corporation (GOCCorp) into a genuine Consumer-Owned-Controlled-Cooperative(COCCoop). The paper has the following main parts: 1) Introduction, 2) A Brief Profile of the City, 3) The "Whys", "Whats" and "Hows" of the citizens' crusade to cooperative-ize the CDO COWD and 4) Conclusion.
(Excerpt of the Newsletter No.9, January 2009)
1. Core ideas: From „urban driving forces" to „urban coherence" to „civil
Cities have always been viewed at from various perspectives - from an architectural viewpoint as agglomerations of persistent buildings reflecting the predominant styles and functions of an era, from the economic perspective of vendors and clients meeting in multi-faceted markets, from a social view as conglomerates of people from different background and history. These views are dynamic: They are different in different cultural backgrounds and they are changing with time, location and context. For long, cities have been viewed at and still are regarded under the perspective of „form" and „function", and they are designed under the auspices of different „leitmotifs". Thus, phenomena, structures and processes are often set in the focus of scientific analysis and discussions. In our Summer School series, we would like to widen the scope of perspectives by adding further views: ...
(Excerpt of the Newsletter No. 10, 2009)
Postmodern urban development - inspired by Edward Soja
The US-American Geographer Edward Soja in his visionary monograph on the theory of postmodern urbanisation (2000) pointed out six main characteristic processes, which he sees to be symptomatic for a postmodern city. These are - focused and in short - (1) the transformation from earlier fordistic industrial production to flexible production systems, (2) the transformation of a city to a so-called „global city", (3) the construction of large urban institutions, (4) the growth of urban polarisation, (5) the protection of the city through private security systems and (6) the breach with earlier ideas on the principles of „the urban". Moreover, for Soja, the globalised megacity of Los Angeles worked as a prime example: here a consumer-shaped city had proven to be dependent on worlds of artificial consumption and leisure with its sophisticated architecture. ...
(Excerpt of Newsletter 07, Dezember 2007)
As this year's Summer Schools on Urban Driving Forces have been held in Cagayan De Oro and Pnomh Penh, it is certainly challenging to deal with the subject if one has missed the path breaking meetings like I did. However, I am sure enough that the discussions and workshops during the events were fruitful. Otherwise they wouldn't have finally led to the development of a structure giving `Multi-Layered Driving Force Model´. Many thanks to Prof. Lee and Dr. Hamhaber for bringing together the discussion outcomes. The conceptual model they have elaborated is highly appreciated because it gives us a tool to understand the jointly defined approach on urban driving forces. Particularly those who couldn't participate in C.D.O. and/or Pnomh Penh are able to relate to the discussed matters of urban drivers. It is perfectly true, in turn, that establishing a mutual understanding is quite important not only in order to embed the coming paper presentations into a common context, but also for reasons which are fundamental for the further approach on the two following foci Urban Coherence and Urban Civil Society in 2008 and 2009. I believe that a joint cognitive interest and approach to urban drivers at this stage can best help building a fruitful foundation for the examination of the coming themes. Therefore, allow me to make some personal comments on Prof. Lee's and Hannes' multilayered DF-model. ...
The evolving nature of urban neighbourhood open spaces - using a case study of Petaling Jaya
In Kuala Lumpur, Lee Boon Thong is undertaking another research project on the evolving nature of urban neighbourhood open spaces using a case study of Petaling Jaya, a suburban city of Kuala Lumpur. The study attempts to develop a model of neighbourhood parks that will contribute towards greater community liveability. Besides addressing the problems and endemic issues of residential open spaces, the study proposes that the development of neighbourhood parks goes far beyond space, although itself is important, and that the traditional understanding of the types of space and its constituent components is inadequate in modelling post-postmodernist developments.
The Adequacy of Urban Public Space in Penang
Public spaces are necessary for urban living. They provide space for many important human activities and functions, as well as contribute to the ecological integrity of the urban environment. Public spaces come in various forms and characteristics depending on their types, uses, functions and sizes, and on whether they are publicly or privately owned and managed. Hence, in any study on public spaces, clear definitions and classifications based on these different attributes have to be worked out.
The first part of the country report of the Malaysian group will hence start with this definition, classification and theoretical background.
Recently, regional cities in the north and northeast regions of Thailand such as Chiang Mai, Khon Kaen, and Ubon Ratchathani, have developed rapidly. The decentralization process has encouraged the public to consciously participate in development at all levels. The uses of urban public space is one realm of conflicts in many regional cities. Local governments, especially municipalities in these cities can no longer perform their tasks without seeking public opinion. The process of public participation has become part of good governance efforts to promote livable city and public spaces.
A successful lawsuit in Ubon Ratchathani and developing awareness of local residents in Nimmanhaemin District, Chiang Mai, have been just first steps towards the search for decent governance of the city. The study of Bueng Kaen Nakhon in Khon Kaen is an example of how the municipality of Khon Kaen can cope with the management of this public space and how it is utilized. In addition, an overview of public space uses has provided a broad picture of how people and communities in Thailand can manage and use their urban public spaces.
A well-developed urban public space has been recognized as an essential component in city development as it contributes to developing the general well-being of people living in the urban community area. However, the increase in the number of people engaging in towns and cities pressures not only its existing current basic urban infrastructures and services, but also its public spaces. In our rapid urban development paradigm, urban public space includes multiple roles and functions which sometimes are complex. In a broader sense the essential aspects of urban public space range across enhancing physical pleasurable environment, promoting interaction among multi-cultural and multi-ethnical communities, serving as a source of promoting business competitiveness for either formal and informal sectors, promoting tourism attraction, and performing other public societal activities. Furthermore, with the high speed of current population growth as well as urban development, it becomes evident that urban public space plays a key ecological role as it even contributes to developing an ecologically healthy urban environment, as well as improving the quality of life in urban area.
The presentations will review the critical multiple functions of public open space offered, particularly in challenging environmental urbanisation landscape.
Keywords: urban public space, urban development, formal/informal sector, urbanization, urban infrastructure, physical environment.
Today, urban public spaces - especially public parks, open spaces and greenery - play a significant role in the provision of recreation and relaxation places for the urban residents in the core cities of Lao PDR such as Vientiane Captial, Luangprabang, Pakse and etc. However, in the past, the number and coverage ratio of public parks and open space has remained limited and less in those cities compared to population growth. The main reason is the understanding of local government and residents of the crucial role of public spaces and environmental conservation. On the other hand, they are focusing on economic activities. Therefore, many urban public spaces have been threatened by investors and development activities.
"...the effectiveness of a city plan does not entirely depend on the technical ability of those who prepared that plan.... The city plan depends a great deal on its popular acceptance and support." - A. C. Kayanan, A.L.A., Manila city planner & engineer 1947.
Cagayan de Oro and Cebu developed from pre?colonial barangay to colonial "Pueblo" or town. The pueblo layout presents the church and the colonial administrative buildings surrounding the open public space called the town plaza. Beyond these are the public market and gradations of residences. From the old "pueblo" layout of Cagayan de Oro, Cebu and Lapu?lapu cities expanded into a medium sized and mega cities. By design, the pueblos were not prepared for the present mode of transportation and other amenities of modern lifestyle. Thus, managing old cities to fit to the present socioeconomic demands means a lot of re?adjustments. This put pressure on whatever is left of the surviving public spaces in these cities. In her report, Lorna Manila presents Cebu and Lapu?lapu cities in the island of Cebu in central Philippines as major urban centers and metropolitan areas where commercial, industrial, institutional, and recreational hubs are situated. The changes in their land uses, through massive land developments which were made only to cater to the requirements of the growth objectives of the local and national governments, have affected their urban environment and landscapes.
Hanoi is one of the few capitals in the world that will be 1000 years old by 2010. Its transformation over hundreds of years may not comparable to the changes over the last century, and especially last few decades. From colonial time to socialist era, and now the transitional period; its street pattern, public space, and living space have been transforming considerably.
These changes reflect the changes in economy and governance, institutions and execution, changes in the attitudes towards amenities and externalities; and above all, the values of Hanoians (changing as well) towards its living space, and public space.
The examples of Hanoi sidewalks, green spaces, and old residential quarters may represent the three most prominent changes of Hanoi over last few decades. Analysing these changes may reveal further insights on how society transformed economically, socially, and institutionally during the transitional period.
May these add some sketches to assist the future governance for the old, but energetic city and country of Vietnam.
A public space serves an important role as one of the city's elements, serving the social interaction function for the people, for their economic activities, as a place for culture appreciation, as well as for improving the quality of city layout. A public space belongs to the public, or the people. Unfortunately, many public spaces are being replaced by building functions, for example, by the activities of vendors who occupy the sidewalk or curb, leading to the pedestrians not being able to walk comfortably. On the other hand, a public space is not considered as a good investment for investors, although it can improve the quality of city layout and the selling value for the buildings in its surrounding which have been or will be built, albeit indirectly. The reason behind this is that most local governments in Indonesia have not paid attention to public spaces. Instead, the city's development is more focused on physical construction in the form of public facility buildings.
A public space may serve as a location of many important social events: mass celebration, demonstration, and gathering for speaking out. A public space which is a part of politic life, also serves as a site for relaxing and recreation. Of the various understanding and perceptions of public space, there has not been categorization based on meaning, function, significance, location, time, process and availability of public space in Yogyakarta.
A well-developed public open space has been recognized as essential component in city development as it has contributed to developing general well-being of people living in urban community area. However, the increase in number of people engaging in towns and cities pressure not only its existing current basic urban infrastructures and services but even public space. With such phenomena city open space becomes multiple role
sometime this role is complicated. The benefit of public open space is not only enhancing physical environment but rang over public activities, social interaction and income generation.
This article reviews the critical multiple function of public open space offered particularly in challenging environmental urbanisation landscape.
Keyword: public open space, urban development, urbanization, urban infrastructure, physical environment.
As a result of economic success promotes investment, people influx, however land become the prime asset for competing besiness encourages competence for space promoting business and housing become a major issue
City is facing serious environment stress/ problems/ crisis linked to
improper solid and liquid waste management, air, water and noise
pollution, and constant flooding. Population
growth in the urban center has resulted in increased waste
generation, putting immense pressure on the current urban waste
management infrastructure. Lack of environmental awareness and poor
waste management have lead to illegal garbage dumping and burning.
Insufficient drainage systems and the blockage of the existing canals
due to illegal dumping result in water logging and constant flooding
in the city during the rainy season. Stagnant water in most parts of
the city serves as breeding grounds for mosquitoes and leads to other
health hazards. It damages public infrastructure as well as private
properties and businesses and leads to temporary loss of income. The
urban flooding issue is the topic of the presentation.
Som Sangva Sak,
Local Expert to Master Plan, Battambang City.
of Public Work and Transportation Office, Battambang City.
Networking - some critical remarks with examples from Europe and
South East Asia
networking and connectivity are the key words of recent debates about
regional policy. Why do these concepts seem so attractive? This
presentation tries to discuss the bright and dark sides of networking
in economy as well as in urban development. In
economy (also in the university system
for example) there is more competition than cooperation. Claims for
economic or urban cooperation, for using comparative advantages and
for using synergy effects very often means a fashionable discourse
game under the discursive formation of ´neoliberalism´, sometimes
creating short time strategic alliances in special fields of
cooperation. By contrast, the situation in working together and
creating networks in ecological fields
as for instance in urban disaster or risk management is different.
Protection against flooding in coastal areas or prevention of other
natural disasters need strong ties and intensive cooperation and
create - in opposition to the network discourses in urban marketing
- a real ´all winners game´.
Prof. Dr. Hans Gebhardt
University of Heidelberg
Collaboration in the Management of the World Heritage Cities of
George Town and Melaka, Malaysia
Town and Melaka, two historic cities on the Straits of Malacca in
Peninsular Malaysia, were inscribed jointly as a World Heritage Site
by UNESCO on 7 July 2008. Their inscription was based on three main
criteria: (i) the cities represent
exceptional examples of multi-cultural trading towns in the East and
Southeast Asia forged from the exchanges of Malay, Chinese, Indian
and European Cultures, (ii) they are living testimony to the
multi-cultural heritage and tradition of Asia, where the greatest
religions and cultures met, displaying a testament to the religious
pluralism of Asia, and (iii) they reflect the coming together of
cultural elements from the Malay Archipelago, India, China and Europe
to create a unique architecture, culture and townscape, in
particular, an exceptional architecture of shop-houses and
Urban Environments from Satellite Imagery: Approaches, Data
Extraction Methods and Applications
on urban environments/ on THE urban environment require comprehensive
understanding of the complex phenomena which shape and interact in
urban contexts. One of the most important aspects in understanding
urban environments is the use of the spatial approach, which can be
carried out with the help of remotely sensed imagery. Satellite
imagery can give a synoptic overview of an area, so that homogeneous
analytical units can be developed as a basis for stratified sampling.
Time series analysis using multitemporal images enables planners to
monitor and to predict land-use change as well as urban area
development. This presentation describes several approaches which can
be used to study urban environments, followed by an overview of
information extraction methods based on currently available satellite
data. Several applications which integrate remote sensing and
geographical information systems (GIS), related to land-use
classification, settlement pattern analysis, land-use change and
fragmentation, urban heat islands, vector-borne infectious diseases,
urban green spaces and a prediction model for urban area development
are briefly explained, including their advantages and limitations.
This presentation also highlights some research needs from the
Assessment of Hanoi's Municipal Socio-economic Development Strategy
up to 2030 (with a vision to 2050)
Socio-economic Development Strategy (SEDS) for Hanoi up to 2030
sketches out five key functions of the capital as (1) the national
political and administrative center, (2) the main cultural center,
(3) the leading scientific, educational and training center, (4) the
country's key economic center, and (5) an international transaction
and communication hub.
an economic point of view, Hanoi should target an annual gross
domestic product (GDP) growth rate of 9-10% from 2011 to 2020 and
7.5-8.5% in the 2021-2030 period while ensuring an average GDP per
capita of US $5,100-5,300 in 2020 and US $11,000 -12,000 in 2030.
environmental issues and objectives related to Hanoi's SEDS, as
well as environmental impacts linked to SEDS were defined in a
strategic environmental assessment and include:
environmental components: water and air quality, solid waste
management, and land use,
resource exploitation and protection: forest resources, ecosystem
and economic environment: employment transformation and creation,
the gap between rich and poor, change in city life styles and the
preservation of cultural traditions...
multiple functions of Wat (pagoda) Space for urban Development
The Wat (or pagoda) is a place where monks reside, and are educated in the principles of Buddhism. It also functions as a public space and
plays a critical role in the establishment of Khmer cultural, social, educational and spiritual/moral identities in Khmer society.
Civil Society to Urban Environmental Risk Management: Role of Women
beyond Natural Disaster
Green & Clean City to Low Carbon City
resource management for Hanoi city under the impact of urbanization
and climate change - Prospects and challenges
- the capital of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam - is one of the
oldest cities in Southeast Asia. Its history spans several thousands
of years l, and the city's formation and development are closely
linked to the evolution of river and lake systems. Hanoi is
spatially structured by water - in the form of the mighty Red River
- Song Hong or Song Ca (Mother River) - and an extensive network
of natural and man-made lakes. In Hanoi, ancient traditions of Feng
Sui (the science of wind and water) placed special reverence on water
bodies and their relationship to/ importance for/ meaning for
water paradigm served to (1) integrate different aspects of life and
(2) to adapt to and to a certain degree accommodate the forces of
nature. Today - in a period of economic liberalization and
transition from tradition to modernity - water is often regarded
from a singular and dominating perspective (be it political,
technical or commercial). Considering the fact that both urbanization
and climate change are increasing, water issues represent incredible
challenges which Hanoi is already facing today.
Disaster Risk Mapping of Barangay Carmen: Flood and Fire
Disaster Risk Management Initiatives for CdO
City at risk- What risks are we facing in Kuala Lumpur and why?
Policy on Social Housing for Unskilled Labours from Rural Areas in
Big Cities in Vietnam
has been experiencing rapid population change with rapid urban
especially for immigrant labourers from rural areas.
However, the strategies concerning this issue have been misleading
and have not caught up with economic development and the speed of
order to cope with this situation, besides the urban housing
development strategies, so called "social housing programs"
for people who cannot afford to buy a house have been implemented
by the Government
in Vietnam "Social housing" only refers to houses for (1)
civil/ public servants, (2) students and workers in EPZs, (3) low
income groups who contributed a lot to their country's liberation
Department of Labor, War Invalids and Social Affairs), (4) poor
people who are legal citizens of the city. The unskilled laborers
from rural areas are not eligible for social housing/ are not
included in the social housing scheme, because they still do not have
the right to complete their resident registration.
Urban new slums in Hanoi - new approach to old risks
The majority of villages in the outskirts of Hanoi have become slum-like areas in the past few decades. Most new development projects did not include villages in their plans and today villages are only poorly connected to the local physical infrastructure. Land has been lost and poor job opportunities have pushed more local citizens to sub-divide their gardens and build cheap rooms on them in order to have an income from rent. Increasingly crowded dwellings which aggravate the already poor living conditions are a cause of environmental degradation. The patch work/ choppy development pattern which is a result of developers acquiring agricultural land seems to be the main factor which has caused urbanising villages to become under-developed islands.
As Hanoi expands faster into its surrounding regions in the next decades measures should be taken to counteract this high risk situation/
unsustainable development. Seven percent of the 83,000 ha of village land in the peri-urban zone/ area/ region seem large enough to urge
the municipality to seek new tools in order to synergize land and physical infrastructure development.
Urban Food Insecurity Risk Management in Yogyakarta
Big Cities in Vietnam and Climate Change Linkages
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hoa Le Thu
Climate change, illustrated mainly by global warming and sea level rise, is one of the most serious challenges facing human being in the 21st century.
According to the World Bank (2007), Vietnam is among the countries which are hardest hit by climate change and sea level rise. Climate change has made natural disasters, especially storms, floods, and droughts, become increasingly severe. Climate change impacts on the natural and built environments and aggravates existing environmental, social and economic problems. Coupled with the challenges of rapid urbanization, climate change impacts may undermine the country efforts to achieve the goals of sustainable development.
As many other urban areas in the Southeast Asian region, urban areas in Vietnam have many linkages with climate change. First, the urban areas concentrate industries, transportation, households and many of the emitters of greenhouse gases (GHG) which causes climate change. Second, the urban arae are affected by climate change, especially on the environmental and socio-economic infrastructures. And third, the urban areas are sources of responses i.e., of initiatives, policies and actions aimed at mitigating/ reducing emissions and adapting to climate change.
Autonomy is one thing, privilege another
Dr. Chaiyan Rajchagool
Urban Disaster Risk Reduction and Management in Yangon City
Zin Nwe Myint
Fire risk assessment in Vientiane Lao PDR - Piloting Community-based fired risk assessment and mitigation
While in Lao PDR, floods have the greatest impact on the country's population as a whole, in urban areas fire and traffic accidents have the greatest impact in terms of lives lost, injuries, property and economic loss. Urban fires caused more devastating damage than any other hazard events over the past decade, particularly in Vientiane capital which is specifically susceptible to the recurring problem of fires. About 352 fire events were recorded between last 10 years with an estimated cost of loss more than five million of dollars. Dense building concentrations, narrow roads, flammable building materials, aging water supply and electrical system, as well as the lack of resources to upgrade preparedness and response skills have resulted in a growing risk of large scale, multiple structure fires. In addition, lack of appropriate mechanisms to guarantee the fire safety in new development is one cause.
Urban Flood Disaster Risk Areas of Cagayan de Oro, Philippines: A look into its implication to the city's built areas
Noel Cornel Alegre
In December 2011 typhoon Sendong (Washi), one of the last depressions that visited the Philippines in that year, caused unexpected flush floods in the cities of Cagayan de Oro and Iligan. For both cities these floods were the most devastating since the hard hit areas are the communities along the major tributaries.
In Cagayan de Oro, many realizations surfaced after the flood. One of these realizations is the fact that Mindanao, especially Cagayan de Oro, is no longer free from the effects of devastating typhoons. For so many years, Kagay-anons and most of the people from Mindanao took pride of being located in a typhoon free area of the country. Because of this idea, "disaster risk management" is not embedded in the previous City Land Use and Development Plans (CLUP).
Institutional and Flood Management in Battambang City, Cambodia
Mr. Som Sangvasak
Since Battambang is an extremely flat urban area, the city has experienced flood episodes almost every year, which has been caused by natural overflow from the river and the heavy rainfalls.
However, there have been no cases of severe adverse impacts on the existing infrastructure and the city as a whole. The concern is that the urban population growth puts pressure on existing infrastructure system and due to insufficient drainage systems, and the blockage of the existing canals due to illegal dumping, results in water logging in most parts of the city and constant flooding during the rainy season.
The rapid unplanned and profit-oriented development, and poor or lack of law enforcement and development controls, has led to the lack of technical infrastructure provision and the loss of natural runoffs and storage reservoirs. Also due to the lack of public budget and human resources, no plans or strategies have been developed at sub-national level together with unclear responsibilities and poor performance of concerned government agencies and administrative levels in dealing with the flood problem.
These have made the situation worse and it they continue to be left unresolved will cause a serious environmental degradation and health hazard. It damages public infrastructures as well as private properties and businesses and leads to the loss of income and impoverishment.
Community Coping Capacity and Resilience in High Risk Urban Area - Best Practices from Indonesia
Indonesia is a prone area to natural hazard. In some extent, urban areas are the most risky areas. It is not only because urban areas lie in hazardous areas, but also because urban areas are the most densely populated and concentration of settlement as well as infrastructures. Since the frequent occurrences of natural hazards during the last decades (tsunami in Banda Aceh, flooding in Jakarta, land subsidence and sea level rise in Semarang, Earthquacke in Padang, lahar in Yogyakarta), urban dwellers have been experiencing coping with natural hazards. Such experiences have resulted in community capacity and resilience to the urban risk. This paper accordingly demonstrates some best practices of community coping capacity and resilience in highly urban risk area.
Management policy on housing for migrant workers in industrial zones in Vietnam urban areas to mitigate social risks
Ta Quynh Hoa
The economic reform launched in Vietnam since early 1990s has generated a momentum for a new development period marked by industrialization and modernization. The last two decades have witnessed a fast increase in the number of industrial and processing zones (IZs) all over the country. Up to now, there have been some 135 IZs covering an area of 20 thousand hectares. 80% of those IZs have been built in urban areas. According to statistics, between 2001 and 2010, about a million migrant workers have been attracted to the IZs in major cities in Vietnam including Hanoi, Hai Phong, Ho Chi Minh, and Binh Duong just to name a few. As a consequence, there is an escalation in demand for housing for migrant workers. Nevertheless, housing stock for migrant workers has so far remained in severe inadequacy as only about one tenth of such demand is met. Therefore, most of migrant workers have been faced with serious problems of living conditions. Moreover, as typically poor migrants from rural to urban areas, they are both vulnerable to social risks and in great need of appropriate risk management instruments, which are inherently and severely lacking.
‘Moving in, moving out': the old and new forms of social risk in Kuala Lumpur
Hong Ching Goh
Since the Malaysia's independence in 1957, Kuala Lumpur has undergone a fast pace of urbanization and witnessed significant economic growth, aided by a series of stimulating government policies. The economic growth has caused complicated social change in the city, alongside with the rapid population increase. In the 1970s and 1980s, major issues in Kuala Lumpur were related to the formation of squatters and the health problems due to poverty. The scale was localized. However, the nature of issues has gradually evolved and the scale turns bigger since 1990s following the government's aim to turn Kuala Lumpur into a ‘world-class' city. Apart from encouraging the multinational companies to set up their business, the government has launched the ‘second-home' policy to attract foreign expatriates to move into the country. This new change has caused new form of social risks among the citizens. For the past two decades, more high-end properties projects were approved, housing prices have sharply increased and citizens gradually moved out from the city center. Giving the above background, the author intends to disclose the nature of old and new social risks in Kuala Lumpur pertaining to the basic need: shelter. Specifically, she aims to disclose the strategies taken by the public sector to prevent, to mitigate and to cope with the risks.
Urban Heritage Management in Vietnam - Natural and Social Risk
(A Case Study on Central Sector of the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long - Hanoi)
Le Thi Thuy Ha
The urban heritage is the ensemble of individual heritage assets and its interaction with social, economic and environmental issues. It is the factor which makes any city unique.
In Vietnam, the uniqueness of Hanoi city was successful to absorb Western and Eastern planning philosophies and cultural influences in the past. Located in the heart of Hanoi, the Central Sector of the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long was built in the 11th century, marking the independence of Vietnam. It was the centre of regional political power for almost 13 centuries without interruption. This urban heritage reflects a unique South-East Asian culture at the crossroads between influences coming from China and the ancient Kingdom of Champa. It has become the 900th site to be inscribed on UNESCO's World Heritage List in 2010.
However, this urban heritage property is exposed to natural and man-made disasters which threaten its integrity and may compromise its value.
Minimizing Social Risks in Flood Prone Urban Areas: A Review of the Urban Planning and Environmental Management Practice, Process and Metholodogies in the Philippines
Lorna S. Manila
Flooding in the last couple of years has increased in frequency, intensity and coverage not to mention the damage that its caused to lives and property, dislocation of people and disruption of economic activities. This phenomenon is clearly apparent worldwide and the Philippines is not spared. Most parts of Luzon, Metro Manila and Mindanao have are heavily flooded several times in a year and just recently, the cities Cagayan de Oro in Northern Mindanao Region and Dumaguete City in Central Visayas Region, places which have hosted our Forum Network were badly hit by massive floods. These cities have just recently shown a steady rise in economic activities but the recent flood may hamper its development. Although there are planning guidelines available and city governments prepare Comprehensive Development and Land Use Plans, flood risk assessment and management may or may not be integrated into these plans, if it is integrated, problems in implementation and monitoring of these plans maybe happening in these cities.
Urban Social Risk (Mis)Management: Seeing Colours In Cities
Lee Boon Thong
Rapid population growth in large cities has often led to a heightened colouration of people groups residing in cities. These processes actually provide opportunities for city authorities, either through overt or covert policies, to consciously integrate the colour groups. However, cities instead have seen the persistence and consolidation of orthogenetic expression rather than the attenuation of residential segregation. Although this inevitably results in an increasing cohesiveness (and sense of security) among the respective ethnic spaces, it amplifies the inter-ethnic delineation. It is at the expense of a larger and more desirable notion of total urban coherence and nation building. In Kuala Lumpur, in particular, "voluntary" segregation and legislated ethnic confines have exacerbated the unseen walls of ethnic residential compartmentalisation. This paper briefly argues that this city growth experience, which increasingly fragments the city into distinct ethnically-identified spaces, leads to subtle local empowerment, exclusionary closure of specific spaces and perceived social inequality, among others, which run contrary to the basic notions of urban social sustainability.
Prof. Dr. Lee Boon Thong
Participatory tools for Social risk management: A Case study of Khon Kaen Municipality
Prof. Dr. Sekson Yongvanit
Khon Kaen province is located in Northeast Thailand, the poorest region of the country. In 1967, the government had a policy to expand education in the region and to increase human resource abilities by the establishment of Khon Kaen University. It was intended that Khon Kaen province would become the center of Northeastern Thailand. In 1977, Khon Kaen was one of 36 major Thai cities that were identified as central towns for new urban planning and development. Roads, electricity and piped water were developed within the city infrastructure network. Utilities and public services such as health care, nursing schools, hospitals, technical colleges, a new airport, regional government center, television and radio broadcasting stations were established. In 1992 the Asian Development Bank (ADB) initiated core strategies for cooperation between countries. A cross-border transport network should be supported in order to give access to the high economic-potential cities of the region such as Bangkok, Rangoon, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City and Kunming. Khon Kaen city (KKC) is established as a center for economic development and an inland container depot (ICD) is proposed along with a truck-stop area and container factory. Moreover KKC has become the information center for trade and one-stop service investment.