Community Coping Capacity and Resilience in High Risk Urban Area - Best Practices from Indonesia
Indonesia is a prone area to natural hazard. In some extent, urban areas are the most risky areas. It is not only because urban areas lie in hazardous areas, but also because urban areas are the most densely populated and concentration of settlement as well as infrastructures. Since the frequent occurrences of natural hazards during the last decades (tsunami in Banda Aceh, flooding in Jakarta, land subsidence and sea level rise in Semarang, Earthquacke in Padang, lahar in Yogyakarta), urban dwellers have been experiencing coping with natural hazards. Such experiences have resulted in community capacity and resilience to the urban risk. This paper accordingly demonstrates some best practices of community coping capacity and resilience in highly urban risk area.
Coping capacity of urban population are mostly performed through several measures, i.e. structural measures, disaster awareness and preparedness, and response to disaster behavior. Structural measures among others are indicated by rising houses in subsidence area of Semarang, build fence/dike in Yogyakarta lahar prone area. Disaster awareness and preparedness is indicated by establishing community disaster preparedness groups (Tagana, Masgana), evacuation route, community early warning systems, important contact, and open space for evacuation camp. Response to disaster behaviors among other are gotong royong, keep alert behavior through ronda. The community resilience is indicated by rapid recovery after disaster and community ability to sustain their activities in daily life and keep stay in the affected area.
In the future, to increase coping capacity and resilience community, government should include disaster preparedness in more detail measures based on participatory processes. Previous measures by government in some cases did not mach with the community need. The need for providing education material for youth at school and their neighborhood. Keeping the prone area from new development.
Keywords: community coping capacity, community resilience, urban risk.
Mrs. Rini Rachmawati, MTP, M.A.
Regional Development Study Program
Faculty of Geography, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia