Driving Forces and Environmental Problems in Jakarta

Jakarta as the capital city of Indonesia is the administrative center of the country and has a special status as autonomous area. It is a multi functional center of business, service and tourism, and the development of the city is driven by governmental policy as well as economy and society.
Today Jakarta Region consists of more than 18 Million people, Jakarta City itself has more than 8 Million inhabitants and it is growing fast beyond its capacity. After the economic crisis 1998 a lot of problems concerning social and economic disparities became obvious. Especially the social services as well as the environmental capacity are not adequate for the population growth and the basic question is, if the fast growing city development could and should be prevented or limited?
One reason for the rapid population growth of the city is the expansion of public transport like sky trains and new railway lines. A high percentage of the population of Jakarta are daily commuters from the surrounding area and suburbs of Jakarta city like Bekasi, Depok, Tangerang, Bogor, etc. They are no inhabitants of Jakarta but they need and use the facilities of the city.
New regulations and integrated spatial planning are needed. But due to the decentralization process the cooperation between Jakarta and the neighboring area is a big challenge for all participants.