Need of Geographic Information Science (GIS) in Urban Planning through Cooperation and Coordination

Cities are expanding on a huge scale. A lot of development activities have the goal to accommodate the growing need of people living in a city. The essential infrastructure to ensure a safe, secure and pleasant life of the city dwellers such as schools, colleges, mosques, hospitals, offices, residential areas, industrial areas, streets, drainage canals, water-, gas- and electricity supply systems, etc. is managed by various departments and service providers.
The growing cities are facing huge challenges due to insufficient infrastructure. Besides problems related to housing and transportation, in Bangladesh inadequate water supply, water logging, unsatisfactory sanitation coverage and health hazards are major issues. For instance, previously, the rainy day was considered as a symbol of romance but now people are getting scared of heavy rainfall because it creates inundation of streets and houses and causes problems to their livelihood.
Such problems are generated from uncoordinated and unplanned development, and the effects of climate change are aggravating the situation. The departments undertake projects to construct buildings, streets, water supply networks, and drainage canals without incorporating the geographical consideration. A solution to the problems is needed to be carried out by using modern technology. The use of satellite mapping and imagery, remote sensing and Geographic Information Sciences (GIS) should be adopted in the planning process in order to capture and store spatial data and to support the problem analysis and display.
In Bangladesh, there is a lagging in applying advance technologies in urban planning due to inadequacy in human and institutional capacities. The knowledge of GIS has not been spread up to the mark to all the agencies involved in planning because the cost of operationalisation of GIS Systems is far higher than the investments in hardware and software. A comprehensive geographical database consisting of all the features of departments/ service providers is essential. The departments should follow the database while planning and executing their works. It is important to tie the departments together and unite them under a single umbrella. It is necessary to have a platform for cooperation and coordination.
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