According to the United Nations, the world population will increase by 2.5 billion over the next 43 years, passing from the current 6.7 billion to 9.2 billion in 2050. The anticipated population growth will mainly take place in less developed regions of the world accompanying the phenomenon of large-scale urbanisation. Asia is the region where about 60 percent of the world population currently lives, and most of the largest megacities – cities of more than 10 million people such as Tokyo, Mumbai, Dhaka, Shanghai, Manila, and Jakarta – are located there. Over the next four decades, Asia and Africa will have a strong increase in their urban populations. It is estimated that by mid-century, most of the urban population of the world will be concentrated in Asia (54%) and Africa (19%). This development but also the growing awareness of global climate and environmental changes emphasises sustainable urban development as well as ecological urban planning in Asian and African countries. In this regard, geo-information plays an important role to detect and analyse urbanisation progress and its effects on urban ecosystems, and to support urban and environmental planning. For this purpose remote sensing offers various advantages such as fast gathering of up-to-date geodata, simultaneous recording of wide-range areas, digital format, and direct integration into GIS. Particularly, the new generation of satellite systems with a very high geometric resolution such as IKONOS, QuickBird, and Terra-SAR-X opens up new perspectives in very heterogeneous and compact urban areas. At the international GIS summer school, I will introduce the current status of remote sensing and image processing methods for urban areas. Application fields and examples especially in metropolitan areas Seoul, South Korea, and Berlin, Germany, will also be presented. It will be an opportunity to discuss the transfer of existing remote sensing metholodogy to other Asian and African regions as well as to find further new fields of application.