As a city that has aged nearly 250 years, Surakarta ( often called Solo) has many areas with historic old buildings. Solo is one of the first cities in Indonesia built based on the concept of modern urban planning. Kasunanan Palace built adjacent to the Bengawan Solo River has always been exposed to the risk of flooding. Thus, a dike which nowadays is still visible was built extending from the southern region of Jurug to Solo Baru area.
Boulevard that extends t from northwest towards the front of the palace square (now Jalan Slamet Riyadi) was designed to direct the view towards Mount Merbabu. There is also a group of housing for migrant citizens. Pasar Gede (Gedhe Hardjonagoro Market ) and Pasar Balong (Balong Market) regions are the settlement areas for the Chinese, while the residential areas of Arabs (mostly from Hadramaut) are located in the region of Pasar Kliwon (Kliwon Market).
In this area, javanese batik traders in the late 19th century and early 20th century have established lots of businesses and residences in the area of Laweyan (now covering Kampung Laweyan, Tegalsari, Tegalayu, Tegalrejo, Sondakan, Batikan, and Jongke). Also the first Islamic-national ??? In this area was also established the first Islamic-national character of the organization's first in Indonesia by Haji Samanhudi, Syarikat Dagang Islam (Sarekat Islamic Trade) on October 16 1905. The former glory of the native batik traders tempo doeloe can be seen from a number of luxury houses in Jalan Dr . Rajiman. This street can be taken as a typical example of the area where rich traders tried to express their power by the construction of luxury mansions of beautiful architecture, protected by high fences with great gates ("regol").
Inside the palace complex of the township is a settlement area of Kauman which formerly was the residence of the royal clerics and his relatives. This complex is located in the rear (western) part of the Great Mosque. Some of the names of villages in this region show the traces of history, such as Pengulon (from the word "prince"), Trayeman, Sememen, Kinongan, Modinan, and Gontoran. These villages are filled with various architecture of the building houses with decorative ornaments and mixture models of European-Java-China houses. Initially, Kampung Kauman located on the front west side of Kasunanan Palace, was meant to be a residence of the royal clerics and their relatives.
Historical buildings like ancient cultural heritages show an interesting phenomenon as there is a regular pattern in the old system, which has been existing hundreds of years ago, in accordance with the future concepts of the city development the research conducted in Solo aims to examine: (1) the spatial patterns of the historic old buildings; (2) the process of the preservation development and the influencing factors; and (3) the impacts that come along with the preservation programs for Solo tourism development.
Keywords: historic old buildings, Solo, spatial pattern, preservation.
Dr. Mohamad Gamal Rindarjono
Sebelas Maret University
Jl.Ir Sutami no 36 A Surakarta, Indonesia