Urban new slums in Hanoi - new approach to old risks
The majority of villages in the outskirts of Hanoi have become slum-like areas in the past few decades. Most new development projects did not include villages in their plans and today villages are only poorly connected to the local physical infrastructure. Land has been lost and poor job opportunities have pushed more local citizens to sub-divide their gardens and build cheap rooms on them in order to have an income from rent. Increasingly crowded dwellings which aggravate the already poor living conditions are a cause of environmental degradation. The patch work/ choppy development pattern which is a result of developers acquiring agricultural land seems to be the main factor which has caused urbanising villages to become under-developed islands.
As Hanoi expands faster into its surrounding regions in the next decades measures should be taken to counteract this high risk situation/
unsustainable development. Seven percent of the 83,000 ha of village land in the peri-urban zone/ area/ region seem large enough to urge
the municipality to seek new tools in order to synergize land and physical infrastructure development.
Land re-adjustment is a possible and recommended tool; however, it is not easy to change the managerial and cultural tradition in Hanoi. Authoritative styles of urban development are accompanied by compulsory land acquisition, top-down planning models and land ownership by the State. Close links between developers and local authorities and the associated power structures may further hamper initiatives outside the budget-controlled projects. In addition, a poor trade-off culture between neighbours may be a reason to
There might be more barriers to come; however, as most South-East Asian countries have successfully applied this tool so far, why shouldn't Vietnam be able to?
Keywords: urbanisation, peri-urban development, land readjustment, infrastructure development, urbanising village, urban new slums.