Urbanisation and development of technology

Abstract
Yogyakarta is one of big cities in Indonesia with a population of 510,914 or approximately 15,720 inhabitants per square kilometer (2002). The rate of population growth from 1985 to 2002 was 6.38 % a year. Yogyakarta has the specific phenomenon as an education city, where 86 universities are located (in 2000). The university students highly contribute to the urbanization, more than 30 % of the students come from areas across the Indonesian archipelago with a growth rate of 14.76 % a year.
As a big city, urban facilities such as banks, malls, supermarkets, and hypermarkets are growing rapidly. The rate of land use change, from open space to built area in the 1990-1999 period was 0.38 square kilometer a year. The urban sprawl process occurs in urban fringe areas, especially in the north (Sleman Regency), which is shown by increasing settlement and higher population growth compared to that in the southern part (Bantul Regency). Residents in the urban fringe areas still utilize urban facilities in Yogyakarta city. They work, go to school and go shopping in the city. It shows the occurrence of a population movement from urban fringe areas to the city.

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) provide many facilities to daily life. ICTs enable transactions to be conducted without going anywhere and purchases to be done from behind the desk through internet or telephone. In Yogyakarta Municipality, ICT or more precisely, the internet is still a new technology (approximately since 1995). Telephones have been used since long ago. Currently, there are some phenomena where cellular telephones (hand phones) become more familiar than home telephones. In addition to three kinds of ICT, ATM cards are also getting familiar. They use ATM cards for money withdrawal, money transfer, electricity payment, telephone payment and etc. ICTs allow many activities to be conducted from only one place.

These phenomena probably will result in less spatial movement and change of spatial behavior. In consequence, they will modify urban and peri-urban spatial linkages patterns. Possibly, the preference for a housing site is not much dependent any more upon location. Therefore these situations presumably offer the opportunity that economic services as well as offices can be placed not only in the urban center but also in the peri urban area. This also reduces some problems in urban areas such as limited space and traffic jams as well as gives the opportunity to develop peri urban areas.