In some Asian cities, urbanization is growing rapidly since the last three decades. Rapid economic growth led by modernization and industrialization in urban areas, attracts rural population to migrate to the urban centres. Only few Asian cities have been well planned and managed in response to rapid and massive urbanization. Urbanization may create a complexity of interactions among citizen, which stimulate development in more plurality or diversity. This paper explains the trends in urbanization and urban settlement dualism taking a case study in Yogyakarta. This city has three major attributes, i.e. centre of Javanese culture, student centres and major tourism destinations. This paper also explores the settlement dualism. Evolution of the settlement development has shown that modern building and slum areas are side by side emerging in the urban centre. On the other hand, in urban fringe is also growing modern real estates close to kampong, a mode of traditional settlement in Javanese culture. Such phenomena will be discussed in dualism perspective to understand the track of the past, present and future of development. Further this paper proposes a research agenda to understand the problems and the dynamics of people in shaping strategies toward sustainable city of Yogyakarta.
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